Background: The first in-human phase-I clinical trial of the tamoxifen metabolite, Z-endoxifen, demonstrated promising antitumor activity in both aromatase inhibitor (AI) and tamoxifen resistant ER+ breast cancer patients (Goetz M.P., et al; JCO, 2017). By utilizing a letrozole-sensitive MCF7 aromatase expressing (MCF7AC1) cell line, and its corresponding letrozole-resistant (MCF7LR) cell line, we have shown superior antitumor and antiestrogenic activity of Z-endoxifen over tamoxifen in the AI-sensitive and resistant settings in vivo. This study also revealed that Z-endoxifen may target protein kinases in addition to estrogen receptor alpha. Follow-up studies demonstrated that Z-endoxifen, but not tamoxifen, binds to protein kinase C beta 1 (PKCβ1), a member of the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase family that regulates signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and tumorigenic transformation (Guo C., et al; SABCS, 2017). We have further shown that PKCβ1 silencing, similar to Z-endoxifen, potently inhibits ER+ cell proliferation and additionally causes ERα turnover. Here, we report a potential mechanism by which PKCβ1 may mediate its anti-proliferative effects in ER+ breast cancer cells. Methods: The effects of siRNA-mediated PKCβ1-silencing on gene transcription were evaluated by RNAseq in MCF7AC1 cells. RNAseq results were further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in PKCβ1-silenced MCF7AC1 cells as well as in ER+ T47D cells. The effects of Z-endoxifen on the mRNA expression of genes altered by PKCβ1-silencing in MCF7AC1 cells were evaluated by qRT-PCR analysis. PKCβ1 silencing effects on protein expression in MCF7AC1 cells were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Results: RNAseq analysis of PKCβ1-silenced MCF7AC1 cells compared to non-silenced cells revealed NF-κB signaling pathway as the top biological pathway significantly altered by PKCβ1 silencing (p=5.93e-08). Enhanced mRNA expression of multiple NF-κB downstream target genes including CXCL10, RELB, MMP1 and IL6 were observed following PKCβ1 silencing. qRT-PCR analyses validated increased mRNA expression of these genes in PKCβ1-silenced MCF7AC1 and T47D cells. Notably, Z-endoxifen treatment in MCF7AC1 cells mirrored PKCβ1 silencing effects, resulting in enhanced mRNA expression of the aforementioned genes. Evaluation of the protein expression of RelA and RelB, the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB transcription factors respectively, in PKCβ1-silenced MCF7AC1 cells revealed significant upregulation of RelA (p=0.0203) but not RelB (p=0.1360) expression. ERα silencing in MCF7AC1 cells did not affect RelA protein expression. Consistent with prior reports, treatment of MCF7 cells with TNFα inhibited cell proliferation. Finally, targeted siRNA-mediated silencing of RelA in PKCβ1-silenced MCF7AC1 cells significantly attenuated PKCβ1-mediated growth inhibition (p=0.0002). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that both Z-endoxifen treatment and PKCβ1-silencing commonly activates a NF-κB-mediated gene signature in ER+ breast cancer cells. Notably, PKCβ1-silencing induces the protein expression of the NF-κB transcription factor RelA in an ERα-independent manner, which appears to contribute to PKCβ1-mediated growth inhibition. Current studies are ongoing to evaluate the impact of RelA silencing on Z-endoxifen mediated growth inhibition. This information will foster our understanding of the estrogenic and non-estrogenic mechanisms by which Z-endoxifen mediates its antitumor activity in ER+ breast cancer.
Citation Format: Swaathi Jayaraman, Mary J Kuffel, Krishna R Kalari, Kevin J Thompson, Xiaojia Tang, Elizabeth S Bruinsma, John R Hawse, Matthew P Goetz. Protein kinase C beta 1 (PKCβ1), a novel drug target of Z-endoxifen, inhibits growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer via activation of the NF-kB transcription factor RelA [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2019 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2019 Dec 10-14; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2020;80(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P6-04-06.