Background: Male breast cancer is rare, with approximately 2,600 cases diagnosed annually in the United States. Data are scant regarding the genomics and pathophysiology of male breast cancer, especially in the metastatic setting, requiring most treatment recommendations in male breast cancer to be made by inference from breast cancer in women.
Methods: We performed prospective genomic profiling of primary and metastatic tumor samples from men with breast cancer treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center using the MSK-IMPACT targeted-DNA-sequencing panel for somatic mutations. Comprehensive demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were collected on all included patients. Statistics are descriptive.
Results: Genomic sequencing was performed on 45 samples from 41 men (31 primary samples and 14 from metastatic sites). Median age at time of sample collection was 61 years, with a range of 27-92 years. Thirty-seven (90.2%) men had ER+/HER2- breast cancer, 3 (7.3%) had ER+/HER2+ breast cancer and 1 (2.4%) had triple negative disease. Thirty-nine (95.1%) had ductal carcinoma, and no cases of lobular carcinoma were identified. Forty patients underwent germline testing, and 12 (30%) were found to have pathogenic germline mutations (6 BRCA2 mutations, 2 BRCA1 mutations [one of whom had a concurrent CHEK2 mutation], and one mutation each in PALB2, MUTYH, and MSH6).
Overall, the pattern of genomic alterations in male breast cancer was similar that in women. Twelve (29.3%) patients had PIK3CA mutations, 9 (22%) had GATA3 mutations, 3 (7.3%) had TP53 mutations, 3 (7.3%) had ARID1A mutations, 3 (7.3%) had KMT2C mutations, 2 (4.9%) had FOX1A mutations, 2 (4.9%) had RB1 mutations, and 2 (4.9%) had TERT promoter hotspot mutations. Eleven (26.8%) patients had CCND1 amplification, 8 (19.5%) had MYC amplification, 6 (14.6%) had FGFR1 amplification, and 5 (12.2%) had MDM2 amplification. All other findings were present in ≤ 1 patient. All included patients had normal mutational burden, and all samples were microsatellite stable. PIK3CA mutations occurred in 33% of primary samples vs. 15% of metastatic samples, CCND1 amplification occurred in 23% of primary samples vs. 38% of metastatic samples, and TERT hotspot promoter mutations were found only in metastatic samples.
Of note, we observed a single ESR1 D538G mutation in the metastatic sample of a patient with significant prior exposure to aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant and metastatic settings. We further found concurrent ERBB2 mutation and amplification in the post-treatment metastatic samples of an ER+/HER2- patient, who was treated with neratinib for 14 weeks with clinical response. Lastly, we report a heavily pretreated patient with metastatic secretory breast carcinoma who was found to have an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This patient was treated with a first-generation TRK inhibitor and continues to exhibit an ongoing clinical response at 8.6 months.
Conclusions: Based on our data, the overall genomic landscape of male breast cancer appears comparable to that of breast cancer in women, as has been previously reported. However, despite the small number of metastatic cases examined, several previously unreported and treatment-informing signatures were discovered, especially in those patients with less common male breast cancer variants. Further study is warranted to confirm these findings in a larger cohort.
Citation Format: Joshua Z Drago, Cristian Serna-Tamayo, Carlos H Dos Anjos, David N Brown, Shanu Modi, Komal Jhaveri, David B Solit, Tiffany A Traina, Sarat Chandarlapaty, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Mark E Robson, Ayca Gucalp, Pedram Razavi. Genomic profiling of primary and metastatic breast cancer in men [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2019 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2019 Dec 10-14; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2020;80(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P4-17-01.