Patients diagnosed with germline mutations in MMR genes (Lynch Syndrome, LS) have up to 70-80% lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, this high-risk population has the potential to benefit from effective chemopreventive strategies. Naproxen is an NSAID widely used for pain treatment with an excellent safety profile that has demonstrated to be more efficacious preventing colorectal cancer compared to aspirin in vivo using an intestinal tissue-specific mouse model of LS (VC-Msh2-LoxP). The ‘Naproxen trial' was designed to evaluate the modulation of PGE2 levels in colorectal mucosa, evaluate safety and tolerability, and discover novel molecular pathways involved in the chemopreventive activity of naproxen in LS patients. Methods: Participants were randomized to naproxen 440 mg (HD), 220 mg (LD) and placebo by mouth daily for 6 months. Modulation of prostaglandin levels, number of adverse events (AEs) observed in each treatment arm and gene expression profiles by next-generation sequencing (mRNAseq) in normal colorectal mucosa of LS patients after 6 months of intervention were examined. Results: Eighty participants diagnosed with LS were randomized, 25 participants to HD, 27 to LD, and 28 to placebo. From these patients, 54 were considered evaluable per-protocol analysis: 16 in the HD group, 15 in the LD and 23 in placebo. The level of prostaglandin E2 in the colorectal mucosa decreased significantly after treatment with both LD and HD naproxen when compared to placebo (-91.2%±14.1, -93.6%±7.9, and 23.8%±108.4, P-value<0.001, respectively). Moreover, levels of PGE2 urinary metabolite (PGE-M) were significantly changed in both treatment groups when compared to placebo (-47.7%±56.9, -41.1%±40.5, 7.6%±94.3, P-Value<0.018). The intervention was well tolerated, no severe AEs related to treatment were reported, and the total number of AEs was not different across treatment arms. LD and HD naproxen promoted the activity of the immune system by activating different immune cell types without any effect on lymphoid cellularity and changed the expression patterns of the intestinal crypt towards epithelial differentiation and stem cell regulation. Conclusions: Naproxen is a promising strategy for immune interception in LS that induces immune-modulation coupled with changes in the dynamics of the intestinal crypt. We have also discovered naproxen-induced gene expression profiles for their potential use as predictive biomarkers of drug activity.

Citation Format: Laura Reyes Uribe, Wenhui Wu, Ozkan Gelincik, Prashant V. Bommi, Alejandro Francisco-Cruz, Luisa M. Solis, Patrick M. Lynch, Ramona Lim, Elena Stoffel, Priyanka Kanth, N. Jewel Samadder, Maureen E. Mork, Melissa W. Taggart, Ginger L. Milne, Lawrence J. Marnett, Lana Vornik, Diane D. Liu, Maria Revuelta, Kyle Chang, Y. Nancy You, Levy Kopelovich, Ignacio I. Wistuba, J. Jack Lee, Shizuko Sei, Robert H. Shoemaker, Eva Szabo, Ellen Richmond, Asad Umar, Marjorie Perloff, Powell H. Brown, Steven M. Lipkin, Eduardo Vilar. Naproxen chemoprevention promotes immune activation in Lynch syndrome colorectal mucosa [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 2020; 2020 Apr 27-28 and Jun 22-24. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2020;80(16 Suppl):Abstract nr CT111.