Dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is frequently observed in human gastric cancer. Elucidation of the tumor immune microenvironment is essential for understanding tumorigenesis and for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. However, it remains unclear how β-catenin signaling regulates the tumor immune microenvironment in the stomach. Here, we identify CCL28 as a direct transcriptional target gene of β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF). Protein levels of β-catenin and CCL28 positively correlated in human gastric adenocarcinoma. β-Catenin–activated CCL28 recruited regulatory T (Treg) cells in a transwell migration assay. In a clinically relevant mouse gastric cancer model established by Helicobacter (H.) felis infection and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) treatment, inhibition of β-catenin/TCF activity by a pharmacologic inhibitor iCRT14 suppressed CCL28 expression and Treg cell infiltration in the stomach. Moreover, an anti-CCL28 antibody attenuated Treg cell infiltration and tumor progression in H. felis/MNU mouse models. Diphtheria toxin–induced Treg cell ablation restrained gastric cancer progression in H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG (Foxp3-DTR) mice, clarifying the tumor-promoting role of Treg cells. Thus, the β-catenin–CCL28–Treg cell axis may serve as an important mechanism for immunosuppression of the stomach tumor microenvironment. Our findings reveal an immunoregulatory role of β-catenin signaling in stomach tumors and highlight the therapeutic potential of CCL28 blockade for the treatment of gastric cancer.

Significance:

These findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role of tumor-intrinsic β-catenin signaling and the therapeutic potential of CCL28 blockade in gastric cancer.

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide (1). The initiation and progression of gastric cancer is attributable to complex genetic and environmental interactions. Majority of stomach tumors are adenocarcinomas that are traditionally divided into two main histologic subtypes: intestinal and diffuse types. Among all the environmental factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is overwhelmingly the greatest risk factor for gastric cancer and is associated with approximately 90% of cases (2, 3). Recent comprehensive molecular profiling has provided new classifications and highlighted the molecular complexity of gastric adenocarcinoma (4, 5). Canonical Wnt pathway-related genes including APC and CTNNB1 are among the most significantly mutated genes (4, 5). Importantly, dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been identified in more than 70% patients with gastric cancer (6). In addition to genetic mutations, alterations in many Wnt pathway components may occur through various mechanisms either to upregulate the expression of the positive regulators or downregulate the expression of the negative regulators, eventually leading to an aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway (7). It has also been shown that H. pylori infection promotes Wnt/β-catenin activation in gastric epithelial cells (8, 9). Together, these findings pinpoint a crucial role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

Immune evasion has been recognized as an emerging hallmark of cancer (10). Understanding the tumor immune microenvironment is essential for the discovery of new therapeutic targets as well as prediction and guidance of immunotherapeutic responsiveness. Data from murine models or patient samples have suggested the involvement of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and M2 macrophages in the immunosuppression of gastric cancer (11, 12). Regulatory T (Treg) cells are another group of immunosuppressive cells that accelerate tumor progression in a broad range of cancer types (13, 14). However, the prognostic role of Treg cells in gastric cancer is still controversial based on previous clinical studies (15–20) and the tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting function of Treg cells in gastric adenocarcinoma is still not verified. Moreover, tumor immune microenvironment or immunotherapy in gastric cancer is much less well explored than many other cancer types such as melanoma and lung cancer (21–23).

Recent studies have underlined a strong impact of oncogenic pathways on evasion of antitumor responses (24). For example, in mouse models of live carcinoma, p53 maintains the expression of natural killer (NK) cell–recruiting chemokines and NK cell–mediated antitumor responses (25, 26); melanoma-intrinsic β-catenin signaling reduces dendritic and T-cell infiltration via downregulation of CCL4 (27). However, it remains to be elucidated how oncogenic pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin and tumor-derived chemokines determine the composition of gastric cancer immune microenvironment. The present study was set forth to answer this important question. Our experiments revealed that activation of β-catenin in gastric cancer caused an upregulation of CCL28 expression and subsequent Treg cell recruitment. Blockade of CCL28 suppressed Treg cell infiltration and gastric cancer progression, thus shedding new light on the role of β-catenin signaling in shaping the gastric cancer immune microenvironment.

Cell lines and plasmid transfection

Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901, AGS, and BGC823 were obtained from the Cell Bank of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). MKN28 and MKN45 cell lines were obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources (JCRB) Cell Bank. Human normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 was a kind gift from Dr. Helen H. Zhu (Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China). Authentication of these cell lines was performed by Shanghai Biowing Applied Biotechnology Co. Ltd. using the short tandem repeat genetic analysis. All cell lines were maintained in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% penicillin–streptomycin (Thermo Fisher Scientific), cultured for no more than 2–3 weeks after thawing, and routinely checked for Mycoplasma infection using PlasmoTest Kit (InvivoGen). Transfection of plasmids into gastric cancer cells was performed using jetPRIME transfection reagent (Polybus Transfection) following the manufacturers’ protocols.

RNA purification and qPCR

Total RNA was extracted from the gastric cancer cells or murine stomach tissues using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen). The cDNA synthesis was performed using PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit (Takara). qPCR experiments were conducted using SYBR Green PCR Master Mix Kit (Takara) and ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). mRNA expressions of target genes were normalized to GAPDH and calculated by the ΔΔCt method.

Western blotting

Proteins of gastric cancer cells or mouse stomach tissues were collected with RIPA lysis buffer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Roche). Protein concentration was quantified by BCA Protein Assay Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Equal amounts of proteins (10–20 μg) were separated by SDS-PAGE using criterion precast gels (EpiZyme), transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (Millipore). Images were developed using a chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase (HRP) substrate (Millipore). Primary antibodies used were anti-β-catenin (Abcam), anti-CCL28 (R&D Systems), antiactive β-catenin (Merck), anti-ERK1/2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-phospho-ERK1/2 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-GAPDH (Abcam), and anti-β-tubulin (Abcam). Densitometric analysis of blots was performed using ImageJ.

Histology, IHC, and immunofluorescence

IHC was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue arrays of human gastric cancer (Alenabio) or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse stomach tissue sections. Tissues were deparaffinized and rehydrated firstly, then blocked with 5% BSA in PBS at room temperature for 1 hour. Afterward, slides were incubated overnight at 4°C with rabbit anti-β-catenin (clone E247, Abcam, 1:300 dilution), rabbit polyclonal anti-CCL28 (Abcam, 1:300 dilution), and mouse anti-H+K+ ATPase β (ATP4B; 2G11; Abcam, 1:100 dilution) antibodies in blocking buffer. After washing with PBS, slides were incubated with anti-mouse or anti-rabbit HRP–conjugated secondary antibodies (1:1,000 dilution) and visualized using a DAB Peroxidase Substrate Kit (Gene Tech). Staining was visualized by Olympus BX53 System Microscope. Staining of β-catenin and CCL28 on human gastric cancer tissue sections was analyzed by ImageJ. To quantify the histopathologic score of mouse stomach, tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and was evaluated as described previously (28).

Immunofluorescence of gastric cancer cells or mouse stomach tissue sections was performed using the rabbit anti-β-catenin (clone E247, Abcam, 1:300 dilution) or rabbit polyclonal anti-GFP antibody (Abcam, 1:300 dilution). Secondary antibody was Alexa Fluor 488–conjugated polyclonal goat anti-rabbit IgG (Abcam, 1:1,000 dilution). Immunofluorescence images were acquired using Zeiss LSM 710 Confocal Microscope.

Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was performed as described previously (29). Relative enrichment was calculated as relative binding of anti-β-catenin over control IgG on the potential DNA binding sites.

Luciferase reporter assay

Wnt/β-catenin pathway reporter plasmid M50 Super 8X TOP-Flash (Addgene plasmid, catalog no. 12456; ref. 30) was a kind gift from Randall Moon. A 2.8-kb promoter (−E2576/+205 relative to transcription start site) of human CCL28 gene was cloned into a firefly luciferase reporter construct pGL4. Mutations on potential T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) biding sites on CCL28 promoter were introduced using Hieff Mut Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Yeasen) to generate mutant CCL28 promoter reporter constructs (pGL4-CCL28.mut). Plasmid transfection efficiency was normalized by cotransfection with a pRL-CMV reporter containing Renilla luciferase gene. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were measured using the Dual-Glo Luciferase Assay System (Promega).

Computational analysis of human stomach TCGA/Oncomine database

To study the correlation of CCL28 expression with Wnt/β-catenin pathway genes, the raw dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) gene expression from 417 patient samples was accessed from UCSC Xena (http://xena.ucsc.edu/). Positive/negative Wnt/β-catenin score was calculated as the geometric mean of a set of genes (31): TCF7L2 (encoding TCF4), CDH17 for positive and NKD1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SOX10, SULF1 for negative. We transformed expression unit from RPKM to TPM for better comparison between samples, and offset 0.01 for friendly plotting view. Spearman rank correlation (R) was used with corresponding P value. The comparison of expression levels of CCL28 gene in the gastric cancer and normal stomach tissues was performed using Oncomine database.

Mouse models and treatments

Mouse model of Helicobacter felis (H. felis) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced gastric cancer was established as described previously with slight modifications (32). Briefly, mice were infected by oral gavage with H. felis (ATCC 49179) three times in a week on every other day. Two weeks after the initiation of H. felis infection, mice were given drinking water containing 240 ppm MNU on alternative weeks for a total of 12 weeks (total exposure of 6 weeks).

iCRT14 (BOC Sciences) was dissolved in DMSO to make 25 mg/mL stock solution, then diluted in PEG300, Tween 80 (Sigma-Aldrich), and saline to prepare 5 mg/mL working solution freshly before injection. Intraperitoneal injection of iCRT14 was given at a dose of 50 mg/kg twice per week for 6 weeks before sacrifice of the mice at the end of week 32. For antibody treatment, mice were administered intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg CCL28 mAb (R&D) to block CCL28 or isotype IgG once per week starting from week 27. For Treg cell ablation, diphtheria toxin (DT; Sigma) was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 6.25 μg/kg of body weight once weekly to DEREG mice (MMRRC Stock No: 32050-JAX; ref. 33) starting from week 27. For evaluation of tumor formation and histopathology, antibody- or DT-treated mice were sacrificed at the end of week 36. All animal experiments were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines.

FACS analysis

For the detection of immune cells in the spleen, blood, and stomach, single-cell suspensions of spleens and stomach tissue were prepared using gentleMACS Octo dissociator (Miltenyi Biotec). 1 mg/mL Collagenase type IV (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and 50 μg/mL DNase I (Sigma-Aldrich) were used to dissociate stomach tissue. Red blood cells in tissues and whole blood were removed using RBC lysis buffer (BioLegend). For detection of intracellular cytokine, separated cells were stimulated for 6 hours with cell activation cocktail (BioLegend). Intracellular cytokine staining was performed using Cyto-Fast Fix/Perm Buffer Set (BioLegend). Nuclear proteins were stained using the Foxp3/Transcription Factor Staining Buffer Set (eBioscience). Fluorescence data were acquired on a FACS Aria II cytometer (BD Biosciences) and analyzed using FlowJo software. Anti-mouse antibodies for FACS analysis used were as follows: CD3e (145-2C11), CD11c (N418), CD25 (PC61), CD11b (M1/70), CD206 (C068C2), CD279 (PD-1; 29F.1A12), F4/80 (BM8), Foxp3 (MF14), IFNγ (XMG1.2), and MHC-II (I-A/I-E; M5/114.15.2) from BioLegend; CD4 (GK1.5), and CD8a (53-6.7) from BD Biosciences; CD45 (30-F11) and Ly-6G/Ly-6C (Gr1; RB6-8C5) from eBioscience.

Gene expression profiling of mouse stomach tissues

RNA samples were isolated from stomachs of control or H. felis/MNU-treated mice. Transcriptome sequencing and data analysis were performed by Novogene. Gene Ontology (GO) or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of differentially expressed genes was implemented by the cluster Profiler R package, in which gene length bias was corrected. GO terms with corrected P value less than 0.05 were considered significantly enriched by differential expressed genes.

PBMC isolation and transwell migration assay

The human periphery blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated via a Ficoll-Paque Plus (GE Healthcare) gradient. PBMCs were washed and resuspended in PBS to create a single-cell suspension. The PBMCs were counted with a hemocytometer.

Supernatants from SGC7901 gastric cancer cell culture were plated onto the lower compartment of 5-μm-pore transwell chambers (Corning). Two million fresh human PBMCs were seeded in PBS containing 1% FBS in the upper compartment of transwell chambers. After 6-hour incubation at 37 °C, PBMC cells migrated to the lower chambers, the migrated cells were collected and used for FACS analysis of Treg cells, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, using antibodies against human CD3 (SK7; eBioscience), CD4 (RPA-T4; eBioscience), CD8a (OKT8; eBioscience), CD25 (BC96; BioLegend), and FOXP3 (206D; BioLegend).

Cell proliferation assay and scratch wound-healing assay

GES-1 or SGC7901 cells were plated in 96-well cell culture plate. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8; Dojindo) was used to evaluate the cell growth rates at 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. Absorbance values were determined on the microplate reader SpectraMax i3 (Molecular Devices) at 450 nm.

To determine the cell migratory ability, GES-1 or SGC7901 cells were grown to 95% confluence after transfected with CCL28 or control plasmids. A straight scratch was made using a pipette tip. The cells were washed with PBS and cultured for 24 to 30 hours. The gap width of scratch repopulation was measured and compared with the initial gap width at 0 hour.

ELISA

CCL28 in lysates of mouse stomach was measured by CCL28 ELISA Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (R&D Systems). Protein concentration of tissue lysates was quantified by BCA Protein Assay Reagent (Thermo Scientific Scientific).

Statistical analysis

Data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance between groups was calculated by two-tailed, unpaired Student t test (GraphPad Prism). One-way ANOVA is used to compare the means of three or more groups to determine the statistical significance (GraphPad Prism). Pearson correlation analysis was used to study the correlation between β-catenin and CCL28 expression in human gastric cancer samples. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Study approval

All animal procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Collection and study of human gastric adenocarcinoma samples was approved by the Renji Hospital Ethics Committee and conducted with the patients’ written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines.

β-Catenin signaling elevates CCL28 expression in gastric cancer cells

To establish a possible immunomodulatory role of the gastric oncogenic β-catenin signaling, we sought out to explore the effects of β-catenin signaling on chemokine expression in gastric cancer cells. We first evaluated the expression levels of β-catenin in several gastric cancer cell lines, among which, SGC7901 and MKN45 showed the lowest and highest expression levels, respectively (Supplementary Fig. S1A). We next overexpressed a constitutively active mutant S33Y.β-catenin, in which the presumptive GSK3β phosphorylation site serine was replaced by tyrosine, in SGC7901 cells with the lowest β-catenin level. As shown in Fig. 1A, overexpression of S33Y.β-catenin led to the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further analyzed expression of all chemokines in SGC7901 cells overexpressing S33Y.β-catenin or transfected with empty vectors by qRT-PCR. Among the detectable genes, CCL28 was the most highly upregulated chemokine by SGC7901 S33Y.β-catenin overexpression (Fig. 1B). In both SGC7901 and AGS cell lines that exhibited relatively low β-catenin levels, CCL28 protein expression was elevated by overexpression of wild-type (WT) or S33Y.β-catenin (Fig. 1C). Of note, S33Y.β-catenin overexpression did not induce higher CCL28 expression as compared with WT.β-catenin. This was possibly due to that the overexpression of the WT.β-catenin had reached the maximum upregulating effect in these cells, and/or that other genes/pathways were also regulating CCL28 expression downstream β-catenin. Conversely, in MKN45 and BGC823 cell lines that displayed relatively high β-catenin levels, knockdown of β-catenin led to a decrease in CCL28 protein expression (Fig. 1D). In agreement with S33Y.β-catenin overexpression, the GSK3 inhibitor LiCl rapidly resulted in a nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and upregulation of CCL28 expression in SGC7901 cells (Supplementary Fig. S1B–S1D). Highest level of active β-catenin was correlated with strongest CCL28 expression at 8 hours poststimulation (Supplementary Fig. S1D). In the human gastric cancer cell lines, β-catenin expression levels generally correlated with CCL28 expression levels (Supplementary Fig. S1A). SGC7901 cells expressed lowest amounts of both β-catenin and CCL28 while MKN45 cells exhibited highest expression levels for both proteins.

Figure 1.

β-Catenin elevates CCL28 expression in gastric cancer cells. A, Representative immunofluorescence images of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells transfected with empty vectors or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids. Cells were stained for β-catenin (green) and nuclei by DAPI (blue). Scale bar, 50 μm. B, qPCR analysis of chemokine expression in SGC7901 cells transfected with empty vectors or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids (normalized to GAPDH; n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two independent experiments. C, Immunoblotting analysis for β-catenin and CCL28 in SGC7901 and AGS gastric cancer cells transfected with empty vectors, wild-type (WT), or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids. Representative data from three independent experiments. D, Immunoblotting analysis for β-catenin and CCL28 in MKN45 and BGC823 cells transfected with plasmids expressing scrambled shRNA (shScr) or shRNA against β-catenin (shCat). E, Representative images of IHC staining of β-catenin and CCL28 in human stomach tumors. Scale bar, 100 μm. F, Correlation between β-catenin and CCL28 protein expression in human stomach tumors, analyzed by Pearson correlation (n = 89). G, Analysis of gene expression correlation between Wnt positive genes (TCF7L2 [TCF4] and CDH17) and CCL28 (left), or between Wnt negative genes (NKD1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SOX10, and SULF1) and CCL28 (right) by Spearman rank correlation (n = 417).

Figure 1.

β-Catenin elevates CCL28 expression in gastric cancer cells. A, Representative immunofluorescence images of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells transfected with empty vectors or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids. Cells were stained for β-catenin (green) and nuclei by DAPI (blue). Scale bar, 50 μm. B, qPCR analysis of chemokine expression in SGC7901 cells transfected with empty vectors or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids (normalized to GAPDH; n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two independent experiments. C, Immunoblotting analysis for β-catenin and CCL28 in SGC7901 and AGS gastric cancer cells transfected with empty vectors, wild-type (WT), or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids. Representative data from three independent experiments. D, Immunoblotting analysis for β-catenin and CCL28 in MKN45 and BGC823 cells transfected with plasmids expressing scrambled shRNA (shScr) or shRNA against β-catenin (shCat). E, Representative images of IHC staining of β-catenin and CCL28 in human stomach tumors. Scale bar, 100 μm. F, Correlation between β-catenin and CCL28 protein expression in human stomach tumors, analyzed by Pearson correlation (n = 89). G, Analysis of gene expression correlation between Wnt positive genes (TCF7L2 [TCF4] and CDH17) and CCL28 (left), or between Wnt negative genes (NKD1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SOX10, and SULF1) and CCL28 (right) by Spearman rank correlation (n = 417).

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IHC analysis further showed a significant positive correlation between β-catenin and CCL28 protein expression in human gastric cancer samples (Fig. 1E and F). Bioinformatic analysis of TCGA database also revealed that CCL28 mRNA expression was positively correlated with the mRNA expression of Wnt pathway positive regulators while negatively correlated with the expression of Wnt pathway negative regulators (Fig. 1G). A significant although less strong correlation between CTNNB1 (β-catenin) and CCL28 mRNA expression was also observed (Supplementary Fig. S1E).

β-Catenin/TCF binds to and activates CCL28 promoter in gastric cancer cells

The molecular mechanism for the regulation of CCL28 expression by β-catenin pathway was further investigated. By searching a 4-kb human CCL28 promoter region (3,000 bp before and 1,000 bp downstream the transcription start site), we found three potential β-catenin/TCF binding sites matching the core consensus TCF binding sequences (34) (Fig. 2A). ChIP analysis showed that site 1 and 3, but not site 2, were actual binding sites for β-catenin (Fig. 2B). By generating a CCL28 promoter activity reporter system, we demonstrated that S33Y.β-catenin elevated the activity of the 2.8-kb promoter but not the promoters with mutations in either of the two potential binding sites (site 1 and 3; Fig. 2C). Among the TCF transcription factor family members, TCF1 and TCF4, but not LEF1, were found to mediate CCL28 promoter activity (Fig. 2D and E). The β-catenin/TCF inhibitor iCRT14 (35), also abrogated S33Y.β-catenin–induced CCL28 promoter activity (Supplementary Fig. S1F). These results demonstrate that CCL28 is a direct transcriptional target of β-catenin/TCF in gastric cancer cells.

Figure 2.

β-Catenin/TCF binds to and activates the CCL28 promoter in gastric cancer cells. A, Scheme of CCL28 promoter luciferase reporter constructs illustrating the wild-type or mutated sequences of potential β-catenin/TCF binding sites. B, ChIP analysis of the binding of β-catenin to the CCL28 promoter in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells (n = 3 biological replicates). C, Luciferase reporter activities of promoterless control (pGL4), CCL28 promoter (pGL4-CCL28), or promoters with mutated binding sites (pGL4-CCL28.mut-1/-3) in SGC7901 cells transfected with vector or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids (n = 3 biological replicates). D,CCL28 reporter activities in SGC7901 cells transfected with plasmids overexpressing shRNA against TCF1 (shTCF1), TCF4 (shTCF4), LEF1 (shLEF1) or scrambled shRNA (shScr), in combination with S33Y.β-catenin plasmid (n = 3 biological replicates). E,CCL28 reporter activities in SGC7901 cells transfected with TCF1-, TCF4-, LEF1-overexpressing or empty vector plasmids (n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two to three independent experiments. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; N.S., not significant.

Figure 2.

β-Catenin/TCF binds to and activates the CCL28 promoter in gastric cancer cells. A, Scheme of CCL28 promoter luciferase reporter constructs illustrating the wild-type or mutated sequences of potential β-catenin/TCF binding sites. B, ChIP analysis of the binding of β-catenin to the CCL28 promoter in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells (n = 3 biological replicates). C, Luciferase reporter activities of promoterless control (pGL4), CCL28 promoter (pGL4-CCL28), or promoters with mutated binding sites (pGL4-CCL28.mut-1/-3) in SGC7901 cells transfected with vector or S33Y.β-catenin plasmids (n = 3 biological replicates). D,CCL28 reporter activities in SGC7901 cells transfected with plasmids overexpressing shRNA against TCF1 (shTCF1), TCF4 (shTCF4), LEF1 (shLEF1) or scrambled shRNA (shScr), in combination with S33Y.β-catenin plasmid (n = 3 biological replicates). E,CCL28 reporter activities in SGC7901 cells transfected with TCF1-, TCF4-, LEF1-overexpressing or empty vector plasmids (n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two to three independent experiments. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; N.S., not significant.

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In contrast, overexpression of WT or S33Y.β-catenin did not change CCL28 expression or the reporter activity in normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 (Supplementary Fig. S2A and S2B), suggesting that the regulatory effect of β-catenin was specific in gastric cancer cells. It was reported that CCL28 might regulate β-catenin and ERK signaling in other tumor types (36, 37), thus we further examined this issue in gastric cancer cells. In AGS and BGC823 cancer cell lines, CCL28 overexpression induced active and normal β-catenin expression but not ERK phosphorylation or expression (Supplementary Fig. S3A). Upregulation of β-catenin signaling activity by CCL28 was also observed in normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 (Supplementary Fig. S3B). However, overexpression of β-catenin or CCL28 did not influence the proliferation or migration of GES-1 (Supplementary Fig. S4). Therefore, the mutual promoting effects between β-catenin and CCL28 may serve as a positive feedback loop in gastric cancer cells.

CCL28 expression is associated with progression of clinical gastric cancer

To better understand the pathogenic relevance of CCL28 in clinical gastric cancer, we performed bioinformatic analysis using Oncomine database and found that CCL28 mRNA expression was higher in both intestinal-type and diffuse-type gastric tumors than normal tissues (Supplementary Fig. S5A). Analysis based on IHC of patient tumor samples revealed that higher CCL28 protein levels were also associated with higher pathologic grades (Supplementary Fig. S5B). Taken together, these data suggest a potentially pathogenic role of CCL28 in gastric cancer.

CCL28 is upregulated by β-catenin in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer

To determine whether β-catenin regulates CCL28 in vivo, we established the mouse model of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer (Supplementary Fig. S6A; ref. 32), which mimicked the proposed pathogenesis of human gastric carcinogenesis to a great extent. Tumors formed 36 weeks after the start of MNU treatment (Supplementary Fig. S6B). Alcian blue staining indicated the feature of intestinal-type transformation. Pathologic scores for inflammation, epithelial defects, metaplastic, and dysplastic grades were drastically enhanced in H. felis/MNU-treated mice (Supplementary Fig. S6C; ref. 28). We further performed FACS analysis to characterize the changes in immune cells in this model at the end of week 36 (Supplementary Fig. S7 and S8). Treg cell numbers were found to be increased in the stomachs and spleens of H. felis/MNU-treated mice (Supplementary Fig. S8). There was a reduction in IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells but an elevation in PD-1+ CD8+ T cells in the stomachs. MDSCs were increased in the spleens and blood. These findings pinpoint an enhanced immunosuppressive phenotype of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer.

Interestingly, GSEA analysis of mRNA expression unraveled the significant enrichment of a set of genes involved in negative regulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090090) in control stomachs, but no significant change in the gene set for positive regulators (GO:0090263; Fig. 3A), suggesting an activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the H. felis/MNU-treated stomachs at least partly through downregulation of the negative regulators. Many chemokine pathway genes were enriched in H. felis/MNU-treated stomachs (Fig. 3A), and, in particular, Ccl28 was among the top upregulated chemokine genes (Fig. 3B). Consistently, Western blotting and ELISA analyses demonstrated that both β-catenin and CCL28 proteins of the stomach tissues were also upregulated in the stomachs of H. felis/MNU-treated mice as compared with control mice (Fig. 3C and D). In line with previous findings that CCL28 was mainly expressed in epithelial cells of various mucosal tissues (38), CCL28 expression was also observed in gastric epithelium of H. felis/MNU-treated mice (Fig. 3E). Moreover, IHC of sequential sections revealed a coexpression of β-catenin and CCL28 in the same areas in both corpus and antrum. Thus, these data suggest that β-catenin and CCL28 are simultaneously upregulated in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric tumors, and that CCL28 expression is enriched in gastric epithelial cells with upregulated β-catenin levels.

Figure 3.

β-Catenin upregulates CCL28 expression in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. A, GSEAs for negative regulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090090) and chemokine signaling pathway (KEGG:MMU04062) gene sets in H. felis/MNU-induced stomach tumors compared with control stomach tissues collected 36 weeks after initiation of MNU treatment. B, Heatmap for mRNA expression of top 10 upregulated chemokines in H. felis/MNU-induced stomach tumors compared with control stomach tissues (n = 3–4/group). C, Levels of active β-catenin (ABC), total β-catenin, and CCL28 in control and H. felis/MNU-treated (H+M) stomach tissues were analyzed by Western blotting and densitometry (n = 3/group). D, ELISA for CCL28 expression in control and H. felis/MNU-treated stomach tissues and tumors (n = 3–5/group). E, IHC for β-catenin and CCL28 in the stomachs of H. felis/MNU-treated mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. F and G, Detection of CCL28 expression by Western blotting (F) and ELISA (G) in stomach tissues of H. felis/MNU mice treated with iCRT14 or vehicle at the end of week 32 (n = 3–4/group). *, P < 0.05.

Figure 3.

β-Catenin upregulates CCL28 expression in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. A, GSEAs for negative regulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090090) and chemokine signaling pathway (KEGG:MMU04062) gene sets in H. felis/MNU-induced stomach tumors compared with control stomach tissues collected 36 weeks after initiation of MNU treatment. B, Heatmap for mRNA expression of top 10 upregulated chemokines in H. felis/MNU-induced stomach tumors compared with control stomach tissues (n = 3–4/group). C, Levels of active β-catenin (ABC), total β-catenin, and CCL28 in control and H. felis/MNU-treated (H+M) stomach tissues were analyzed by Western blotting and densitometry (n = 3/group). D, ELISA for CCL28 expression in control and H. felis/MNU-treated stomach tissues and tumors (n = 3–5/group). E, IHC for β-catenin and CCL28 in the stomachs of H. felis/MNU-treated mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. F and G, Detection of CCL28 expression by Western blotting (F) and ELISA (G) in stomach tissues of H. felis/MNU mice treated with iCRT14 or vehicle at the end of week 32 (n = 3–4/group). *, P < 0.05.

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To verify whether the elevated CCL28 expression was mediated by the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, H. felis/MNU-treated mice were given a β-catenin/TCF inhibitor iCRT14 (39) to block the transcriptional activity. Western blotting and ELISA results both showed that CCL28 protein levels were downregulated by iCRT14 treatment (Fig. 3F and G). In contrast, treatment of healthy control mice with iCRT14 did not change CCL28 expression (Supplementary Fig. S9A), suggesting that CCL28 might be regulated by Wnt/β-catenin pathway in transformed cells where β-catenin had been activated, but not in normal healthy gastric cells. In the H. felis/MNU mice, long-term iCRT14 treatment was found to be associated with signs of toxicities such as fatigue and abdominal swelling, which precluded us from analyzing tumor growth and pathology at week 36. Overall, in agreement with the in vitro findings in gastric cancer cells (Fig. 1C and D; Supplementary Fig. S1F), these results indicate that activation of β-catenin signaling in the stomach leads to an increase in CCL28 expression in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer in vivo.

CCL28 blockade inhibits H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer progression

We further explored whether CCL28 was indeed a pathogenic factor and contributed to gastric cancer progression in vivo. Mice were given anti-CCL28 mAb to block CCL28 activity once per week starting from week 27 after the start of MNU treatment. After a 10-week treatment with antibodies, the anti-CCL28 antibody significantly reduced tumor size in the stomachs of H. felis/MNU mouse models as compared with isotype control (Fig. 4A). Histologic analysis showed an apparent alleviation in dysplastic grade and intestinal-type transformation by anti-CCL28 therapy (Fig. 4B). Loss of parietal cells was reversed as shown by immunochemical staining of H+K+ ATPase (Fig. 4B). The pathologic degrees of epithelial defects, metaplasia, and dysplasia were all significantly reduced by anti-CCL28 therapy especially in the gastric antrum, although not in the corpus (Fig. 4C). These data demonstrate that CCL28 blockade suppresses H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer progression and that CCL28 is a pathogenic factor in gastric cancer.

Figure 4.

CCL28 blockade inhibits progression of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. Mice were treated with anti-CCL28 (αCCL28) or isotype antibodies for 10 weeks and euthanized at the end of week 36. A, Representative macroscopic images of stomachs of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype antibodies (left) and quantification of tumor areas (right; n = 3/group). Scale bar, 50 mm. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Alcain blue (AB), and H+/K+ ATPase staining of the stomach sections of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype. Black arrowheads, invasive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa. Scale bars, 100 μm. C, Histopathologic scores for mouse stomachs (n = 3–4/group). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

Figure 4.

CCL28 blockade inhibits progression of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. Mice were treated with anti-CCL28 (αCCL28) or isotype antibodies for 10 weeks and euthanized at the end of week 36. A, Representative macroscopic images of stomachs of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype antibodies (left) and quantification of tumor areas (right; n = 3/group). Scale bar, 50 mm. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Alcain blue (AB), and H+/K+ ATPase staining of the stomach sections of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype. Black arrowheads, invasive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa. Scale bars, 100 μm. C, Histopathologic scores for mouse stomachs (n = 3–4/group). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001.

Close modal

β-Catenin–upregulated CCL28 recruits Treg cells in vitro and in vivo

We next sought out to elucidate the mechanisms for the antitumor effects of CCL28 blockade. It has been shown that CCL28 mediates Treg cell migration (40, 41). We examined whether β-catenin–activated tumor cells recruit human Treg cells in vitro through CCL28. Notably, CCL28 secreted into the supernatants of SGC7901 cells was raised by S33Y.β-catenin and decreased by CCL28 shRNA as analyzed by ELISA (Supplementary Fig. S9B and S9C). Supernatants from SGC7901 cells transfected with S33Y.β-catenin, CCL28 shRNA, or control plasmids were collected to recruit immune cells in an in vitro cell migration assay. Western blotting confirmed a reduction in S33Y.β-catenin–induced CCL28 protein expression by shRNA knockdown (Fig. 5A). In the transwell migration assay, PBMCs that migrated to the supernatants from tumor cell culture were analyzed by flow cytometry (Fig. 5B). The ratio of Treg cells in total CD4+ T cells and the absolute migrated Treg cell number were significantly increased under S33Y.β-catenin overexpression condition and decreased following CCL28 knockdown (Fig. 5C and D), indicating that β-catenin–activated gastric cancer cells recruit Treg cells through CCL28 in vitro. Conditioned medium did not show any difference in the recruitment of total CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, suggesting a specific effect of the β-catenin/CCL28 axis on Treg cells. Furthermore, overexpression of CCL28, in contrast, did not change the proliferation or migratory ability of gastric cancer cells (Supplementary Fig. S10), suggesting that the tumor-promoting effect of CCL28 might rely on its immunoregulatory function.

Figure 5.

β-Catenin–upregulated CCL28 recruits Treg cells in vitro. A, Immunoblotting analysis of β-catenin and CCL28 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells transfected with plasmids as indicated. B, Immune cells that migrated to conditioned media from SGC7901 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. C and D, The percentages of CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in total live PBMCs (C) and the absolute numbers of migrated immune cells (D) are shown (n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two independent experiments. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.

Figure 5.

β-Catenin–upregulated CCL28 recruits Treg cells in vitro. A, Immunoblotting analysis of β-catenin and CCL28 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells transfected with plasmids as indicated. B, Immune cells that migrated to conditioned media from SGC7901 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. C and D, The percentages of CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in total live PBMCs (C) and the absolute numbers of migrated immune cells (D) are shown (n = 3 biological replicates). Representative data from two independent experiments. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01.

Close modal

We also examined the effects of β-catenin/TCF inhibitor iCRT14 on the recruitment of Treg cells in vivo in H. felis/MNU-treated mice at the end of week 32, and found that the ratio of stomach Treg cells versus total CD45+ cells was downregulated by β-catenin/TCF inhibitor iCRT14 (Supplementary Fig. S11). Interestingly, such splenic Treg cell ratio was also significantly decreased, implying that there might also be a Wnt/β-catenin–dependent mechanism in the spleens. Treg cell numbers in the blood were not influenced by iCRT14 treatment, suggesting that the reduction in Treg cell numbers in the stomach and spleens was likely due to a change in recruitment but not differentiation, proliferation, or viability of the cells.

To ascertain whether CCL28 controls Treg cell migration in vivo, we treated H. felis/MNU mice with anti-CCL28 or isotype antibodies from the beginning of week 27 as described above. FACS analysis was performed at the end of week 32 and confirmed a significant reduction of Treg cells in the stomachs of anti-CCL28 antibody-treated mice (Fig. 6A). Interestingly, anti-CCL28 treatment also decreased the ratio of Treg cells in the spleens but not in the blood, in line with previous findings in iCRT14-treated mice, suggesting that there was a β-catenin–CCL28-dependent mechanism for Treg cell recruitment in the spleens as well as the stomachs. IFNγ+CD4+ T cells did not show significant changes by the treatment (Fig. 6B), while there was a significant increase in IFNγ+CD8+ T-cell ratio in the spleens of anti-CCL28–treated mice (Fig. 6C). The expression of the inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule CTLA4 on Treg cells in the stomach or blood was not affected by anti-CCL28 treatment, but was significantly decreased on Treg cells from the spleens (Supplementary Fig. S12). Interestingly, the number and immunosuppressive function of the splenic Treg cells were both attenuated by the anti-CCL28 treatment. In addition to its effect on stomachs, the influence of anti-CCL28 antibody in the spleens may also contribute to the overall therapeutic effects of the treatment because effective cancer immunotherapy requires immune activation in the periphery and coordinated systemic immunity (35). Together, these data suggest that anti-CCL28 therapy effectively inhibits the recruitment of Treg cells without influencing the function of stomach Treg cells to counteract the immunosuppressive state, which might account for the mechanism underlying its antitumor effects in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer.

Figure 6.

CCL28 blockade alleviates Treg cell infiltration in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. Mice were treated with anti-CCL28 (αCCL28) or isotype antibodies for 6 weeks and FACS analysis was performed at the end of week 32. A–C, Gating strategy (top) and quantification (bottom) for Treg cells (A), IFNγ+CD4+ T cells (B), and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells (C) in the spleens, blood, and stomachs of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype antibodies (n = 4/group). *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001.

Figure 6.

CCL28 blockade alleviates Treg cell infiltration in H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer. Mice were treated with anti-CCL28 (αCCL28) or isotype antibodies for 6 weeks and FACS analysis was performed at the end of week 32. A–C, Gating strategy (top) and quantification (bottom) for Treg cells (A), IFNγ+CD4+ T cells (B), and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells (C) in the spleens, blood, and stomachs of H. felis/MNU mice treated with αCCL28 or isotype antibodies (n = 4/group). *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.001.

Close modal

Ablation of Treg cells restrains H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer progression

Although Treg cells have been shown to be tumor-promoting in many types of cancers, an explicit role of Treg cells in gastric cancer has not been established and remains debatable based on clinical studies (15–20). Our above experiments showed that the anti-CCL28 treatment effectively blocked the infiltration of Treg cells in stomach tumors, but whether the therapeutic effects of CCL28 blockade depend on modulation of Treg cells and what biological function of the Treg cells exert in the progression of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer are unknown. To address these questions, we next examined the role of Treg cells by utilizing the DEREG (Foxp3-DTR/GFP) mice in which Treg cells could be depleted by DT treatment (34). In these mice, GFP expression correlated with Foxp3 expression as shown by FACS analysis (Supplementary Fig. S13A–S13C) and GFP staining could identify Treg cells in the stomach (Supplementary Fig. S13D). As expected, DT treatment for a period of 4 weeks significantly decreased Treg ratios in the spleens, blood, and stomachs of DEREG mice (Supplementary Fig. S14).

We then treated DEREG mice with H. felis and MNU to induce gastric cancer as described above (Supplementary Fig. S5A). DT or PBS was injected for 10 weeks before DEREG mice were sacrificed at the end of week 36. Ablation of Treg cells by DT indeed resulted in significantly reduced tumor areas (Fig. 7A). Histologically, DT-treated mice regained relatively normal phenotype of stomach (Fig. 7B) and exhibited much lower pathologic degrees of epithelial defects, metaplasia, and dysplasia (Fig. 7C). IHC staining of GFP demonstrated a decrease in Treg cell infiltration in both gastric corpus and antrum by DT treatment (Fig. 7D). FACS analysis revealed that Treg cell numbers were decreased in the spleens and blood of DT-treated mice (Fig. 7E), confirming a successful ablation of Treg cells by DT treatment. In contrast, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell numbers were increased in the spleens and blood, implying that ablation of Foxp3+ cells might influence the proliferation, viability, and/or differentiation of the effector T cells. In contrast, DT treatment did not affect CCL28 expression in the stomachs of normal DEREG mice (Supplementary Fig. S15A) or H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice (Supplementary Fig. S15B), suggesting DT specifically depleted Treg cells by inducing direct cell death without influencing the CCL28 chemotaxis. Together, these results indicate that Treg cells contribute to the progression of H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer and that anti-CCL28 therapy at least partly depends on the blockade of Treg cell infiltration.

Figure 7.

Ablation of Treg cells restrains gastric cancer progression. A, Representative macroscopic images of the stomachs of H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice further injected with DT or PBS (left) and quantification of tumor areas (right; n = 3/group). Scale bar, 50 mm. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of the stomachs in H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. C, Histopathologic scores for DEREG mouse stomachs (n = 3–4/group). D, IHC for GFP (Foxp3) in DEREG mouse stomachs. Scale bar, 100 μm. E, FACS analysis of Treg, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells in the spleens and blood of H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice given DT or PBS. FACS analysis was performed at the end of week 36 (n = 3/group). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; N.S., not significant.

Figure 7.

Ablation of Treg cells restrains gastric cancer progression. A, Representative macroscopic images of the stomachs of H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice further injected with DT or PBS (left) and quantification of tumor areas (right; n = 3/group). Scale bar, 50 mm. B, Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of the stomachs in H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice. Scale bar, 100 μm. C, Histopathologic scores for DEREG mouse stomachs (n = 3–4/group). D, IHC for GFP (Foxp3) in DEREG mouse stomachs. Scale bar, 100 μm. E, FACS analysis of Treg, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells in the spleens and blood of H. felis/MNU-treated DEREG mice given DT or PBS. FACS analysis was performed at the end of week 36 (n = 3/group). *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.001; N.S., not significant.

Close modal

In the present study, we uncover that β-catenin signaling in gastric cancer upregulates CCL28 expression and increases Treg cell infiltration subsequently, which shapes an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Our study not only extends previous understandings of the oncogenic effects of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway mainly via its control on cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in gastric cancer (7, 42, 43), but also indicates that the immunoregulatory function of β-catenin signaling also plays a pivotal role in tumor progression. More importantly, the present work demonstrates that CCL28 blockade exhibits a striking antitumor effect by suppressing Treg cell infiltration and may serve as a therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

It is important to point out that regarding the immunoregulatory mechanism by which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to gastric cancer progression, our study identifies CCL28 as a key linker between the oncogenic β-catenin signaling and the stomach tumor microenvironment. Chemokines have been shown to be critical for tumor development and progression by influencing tumor cell proliferation or metastasis or by shaping the tumor immune microenvironment (44, 45). In particular, tumor cells tend to downregulate the expression of chemokines that recruit antitumor effector immune cells and upregulate chemokines that attract immunosuppressive cells to create a favorable immune microenvironment for their growth. Because a direct effect of CCL28 on proliferation or migration of gastric cancer cells was not observed, we proposed and proved that the tumor-promoting function of CCL28 largely depended on the recruitment of immunosuppressive Treg cells. We demonstrated that, in addition to those cell growth–related genes such as MYC (c-myc) and CCND1 (cyclin D 1), CCL28 was a novel transcriptional target gene of β-catenin/TCF. In agreement with a previous report showing that CCL28 was increased in H. pylori–induced gastric mucosa (46), H. felis/MNU treatment also upregulated CCL28 expression in the mouse stomach at least partly through the β-catenin/TCF pathway. This notion is supported by the fact that Helicobacter infection induced β-catenin activation in both human and mouse stomachs and further proven by the evidence that β-catenin/TCF inhibitor iCRT14 blocked CCL28 expression in Helicobacter-treated mouse stomach. These findings pinpoint an important role of β-catenin–CCL28 axis in Helicobacter-involved gastric cancer. Recent analysis of all TCGA tumors by others revealed a correlation of β-catenin signaling with non-T-cell–inflamed phenotype, although the mechanisms were not elucidated (47). In melanoma, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway results in lymphocyte exclusion via downregulation of CCL4 expression. However, we did not observe a decrease in CCL4 expression upon β-catenin activation in gastric cancer. The discrepancy in the two findings may be due to intrinsic differences in gastric tumor cells versus melanoma cells (27). While most of previous researches on the connection between oncogenic pathways and the tumor microenvironment focused on the immune effector cells (24), the conceptual advancement of our current study is the regulation of immunosuppressive Treg cells by tumor β-catenin signaling. The control of Treg cell infiltration by β-catenin signaling in H. felis/MNU-induced stomach tumor was clearly demonstrated by the effect of iCTR14 treatment in the present experiments, further supporting such conceptual advancement.

The most significant clinical implication of our work is that blockade of CCL28 activity effectively suppresses gastric cancer progression. Although Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been an attractive target for cancer treatment, application of its inhibitors may be risky because it is involved in a multitude of developmental processes and the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis (48–50). Up to now, no Wnt pathway inhibitors have become successful drugs for cancer treatment (48, 51). Targeting the pathogenic factors downstream Wnt/β-catenin pathway may provide an alternative strategy. In this regard, the present work showing that targeting the β-catenin target gene CCL28 by a neutralizing antibody leads to decreased Treg infiltration in the stomach and represses tumor growth is of particular interest. Consistent with our work, it has been shown that hypoxia induces CCL28 expression and blockade of its receptor CCR10 attenuates tumor growth in ovarian cancer (41). It will be interesting to investigate whether CCL28 expression is regulated by hypoxia and whether CCR10 blockade exerts an antitumor effect in gastric cancer. Despite the possibility that CCL28 is also regulated by other pathways besides β-catenin signaling, we propose that CCL28 could be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Because Treg cells are regulated by CCL28-mediated chemotaxis and appear to be tumor-promoting in many cancers, the antitumor function of CCL28 blockade is presumed to depend on the inhibition of the chemotaxis for Treg cell infiltration. However, the exact biological function of Treg cell in gastric cancer development and progression has not been verified yet, and the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells in patients with gastric cancer remains controversial (15–20). Here, by using the DT/DTR-system–mediated specific and efficient depletion of Foxp3+ cells in DEREG mice, we found that ablation of Treg cells drastically attenuated H. felis/MNU-induced gastric cancer, in accordance with their tumor-promoting role in many other cancer types (14, 52). Thus, Treg cells are also an attractive therapeutic target in gastric cancer. Toward this direction, anti-CD25 antibody is one of the most widely used strategy to deplete Treg cells (14, 53), but CD25 is also expressed on other subpopulations of CD4+ T cells besides Treg cells and may not be a perfect target. On the other hand, a recent study reveals that apoptotic Treg cells become even more immunosuppressive than live Treg cells (54), implying that treatments-induced Treg apoptosis may have compromised therapeutic efficacy. To avoid these complications, by blocking CCL28-mediated Treg cell infiltration, we provide an additional therapeutic strategy to target Treg cells without affecting the viability of Treg cells. Alternatively, the CCL28 chemotaxis can be also interrupted by targeting the CCL28 receptor CCR10 on Treg cells (41), which needs to be investigated in the future. Given the fact that the β-catenin pathway is frequently dysregulated in gastric cancer (7), the β-catenin–CCL28-Treg regulatory axis should be widely involved. The anti-CCL28 therapy may apply to a broad range of patients with gastric cancer and represent a novel and promising treatment in the future.

No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

Conception and design: L. Ji, B. Ma, W.-Q. Gao

Development of methodology: L. Ji, B. Ma

Acquisition of data (provided animals, acquired and managed patients, provided facilities, etc.): L. Ji, W. Qian, L. Gui, Z. Ji, P. Yin, G.N. Lin, Y. Wang, B. Ma

Analysis and interpretation of data (e.g., statistical analysis, biostatistics, computational analysis): L. Ji, Z. Ji, B. Ma, W.-Q. Gao

Writing, review, and/or revision of the manuscript: L. Ji, B. Ma, W.-Q. Gao

Administrative, technical, or material support (i.e., reporting or organizing data, constructing databases): L. Ji, B. Ma

Study supervision: B. Ma, W.-Q. Gao

This work was supported by funds from Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (2017YFA0102900 to W.-Q. Gao), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81602484 to B. Ma; 81872406 and 81630073 to W.-Q. Gao), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (16JC1405700 to W.-Q. Gao), Shanghai Jiao Tong University Scientific and Technological Innovation Funds (2019TPB07 to W.-Q. Gao), KC Wong Foundation (to W.-Q. Gao), and the Shanghai Young Eastern Scholar Funds (QD2016005 to B. Ma). Finally, we thank Shengguo Jia for his assistance in FACS analysis.

The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

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