Mutation of either the intracellular catalytic domain or the extracellular domain of the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) drives oncogenicity. Extracellular domain EGFR mutations are highly expressed in patients with glioblastoma. Despite clinical success with targeting EGFR catalytic site mutants, no drugs have proven effective in glioblastoma patients expressing extracellular EGFR mutations. Herein, we define the molecular mechanism for oncogenic activation of families of extracellular EGFR mutations and reveal how this mechanism renders current generation small molecule ATP-site inhibitors ineffective. We demonstrate that a group of the most commonly expressed extracellular domain EGFR mutants expressed in glioblastomas is activated by disulfide-bond mediated covalent homodimerization, collectively referred to as locked dimerization (LoDi-EGFR oncogenes). Strikingly, current generation small molecules binding to the active kinase conformation potently inhibit catalytic site mutants, but induce covalent dimerization and activate LoDi-EGFR receptors, manifesting in paradoxical acceleration of proliferation. These data demonstrate how the locked-dimer mechanism of EGFR oncogenesis has profound impact on the activity of small molecules acting at the distal catalytic site, providing further evidence for “inside-out” allosteric signaling in EGFR. This provides a mechanistic understanding for the failure of current generation EGFR inhibitors to effectively treat LoDi-EGFR mutants in GBM and sets guidelines for discovery of selective LoDi-EGFR inhibitors.
Citation Format: Matthew O'Connor, Theodore Nicolaides, Jie Zhang, Alexander Flohr, Roberto Iacone, Alexander V. Mayweg, David M. Epstein, Elizabeth Buck. Epidermal growth factor receptor oncogenes expressed in glioblastoma are activated as covalent dimers and exhibit unique pharmacology [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2019; 2019 Mar 29-Apr 3; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(13 Suppl):Abstract nr LB-111.