Bone metastasis is a frequent complication in advanced prostate cancer, with the resultant lesions significantly contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. While next generation hormone ablation therapies and bone protecting bisphosphonates alleviate these symptoms, the disease remains incurable, and new therapeutic approaches are of urgent need. In this regard, we have focused on tapping the tumor-seeking potential of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. CAR T cells have shown remarkable anti-tumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but unique physical and biological challenges have hindered their activity in solid tumors. Interestingly, patients treated with bisphosphonates such as zoledronate exhibit enhanced recruitment and activation of the γδ subset of T cells in bone due intracellular accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) phosphoantigen. Whereas conventional CAR T cell therapies utilize αβ T cells, we posit that designing γδ CAR T cells could improve homing to bone metastases when administered with bisphosphonates. First, to test the impact of prostate specific stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific γδ CAR T cells against bone metastatic prostate cancer in vivo, NSG mice (n=10) were intratibially injected with PSCA/luciferase-expressing C4-2B (2x105) castrate resistant prostate cancer cells. Tumors were allowed to establish for 10 days and then randomized into control or γδ CAR T (1.5x107 via tail vein) groups. Subsequent bioluminescent imaging indicated a rapid and significant (p=0.0006) regression of tumors in the γδ CAR T cell group, leading to increased overall survival (5/5 γδ CAR T vs. 0/5 control after 68 days, p=0.0002). Ex vivo bone morphometry analysis also demonstrated the significant protective effect of γδ CAR T associated bone disease. To determine whether bisphosphonates could further enhance the homing of γδ CAR T to bone, NSG mice (n=30) were intratibially injected with C4-2B (2x105), and randomized into control and zoledronate (30µg/kg) groups. After 10 days, mice received γδ T cells (3x106). Subsets were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 5 days post-T cell administration, and peripheral blood, tibia bone marrow, and spleens isolated. CD3-Vδ2 flow cytometry indicated increased γδ T cells in the tibia bone marrow from zoledronate groups (Day 1=61%, Day 3=32%, and Day 5=57%). Furthermore, decreased tumor growth rates were observed in the zoledronate group, suggesting that increased homing of γδ T cells induced anti-tumor effects. Our data to date demonstrate that γδ CAR T cells significantly mitigate bone metastatic prostate cancer and associated bone disease. Further, bisphosphonates (already used in the clinical setting) enhance the homing of γδ CAR T cells to the tumor-bone microenvironment. We posit that γδ CAR T will be an effective immunotherapy approach for the treatment of men with incurable bone metastatic prostate cancer.

Citation Format: Jeremy Steven Frieling, Maria Cecilia Ramello, Ismahene Benzaid, Emiliano Roselli, Chen Hao Lo, Conor C. Lynch, Daniel Abate-Daga. γδ CAR T-cell therapy significantly mitigates bone metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2019; 2019 Mar 29-Apr 3; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 934.