Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common type of malignant salivary gland tumor. MECs frequently exhibit a recurrent t(11;19)(q21;p13) chromosomal translocation that fuses the transcriptional coactivators CRTC1 (CREB-Regulated Transcription Coactivator 1; C1) and MAML2 (Mastermind-Like 2; M2). Though many C1/M2-positive tumors are easily resected, some do progress to advanced, metastatic disease accompanied by poor 5-year survival rates. Thus, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which C1/M2 drives tumor growth and progression in order to identify therapeutic vulnerabilities. Our lab recently identified a correlation between C1/M2 expression and increased levels of the growth hormone IGF-1. This hormone plays critical roles in the development and homeostasis of normal salivary glands, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several cancers including colon and lung cancers. Interestingly, we demonstrate that IGF-1 is not directly upregulated by C1/M2. Rather, we have discovered a novel C1/M2-driven signaling circuit whereby constitutive CREB activation drives the increased production of a minor PGC-1α (PPARγ Coactivator 1α) splice variant, PGC-1α4, which is responsible for the high IGF-1 levels observed in C1/M2-positive MEC cells. Notably, the PGC-1α4 splice variant is minimally expressed in normal tissues and C1/M2-negative cell lines but is selectively upregulated in C1/M2-positive cell lines. We show that C1/M2 directly binds CREB at the PGC-1α4 promoter to induce expression of this variant, resulting in increased IGF-1 expression. IGF-1 promoter analysis revealed a significant enrichment of PPARγ binding motifs and functional studies confirm that this promoter is regulated by PPARγ. Consequently, we demonstrate that a novel PPARγ inverse agonist is capable of repressing IGF-1 promoter activity and reducing growth and clonogenic potential of C1/M2-positive cell lines that exhibit high PGC-1α4 expression. Collectively, our results reveal a novel therapeutic vulnerability in salivary MEC cells that may extend more broadly to other cancers that exhibit dysregulated CREB activity.
Citation Format: Adele M. Musicant, Kshitij P. Sharma, Erin C. Henry, Jason Tasoulas, Ricardo Padilla, Monideepa Sengupta, Colin Flaveny, Antonio L. Amelio. The CRTC1/MAML2 oncogene induces a PGC-1a splice variant that sensitizes mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells to PPARg inhibition [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2019; 2019 Mar 29-Apr 3; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 874.