ARF6 is a member of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTPases and is part of the RAS superfamily. We have shown that pharmacologic inhibition of ARF6 can inhibit proliferation of uveal melanoma and invasion/metastasis of cutaneous melanoma. Most cutaneous melanomas are defined by mutually-exclusive driver mutations in BRAF, NRAS, or NF1. These subtypes share similar mechanisms of oncogenesis because they align along a continuum of RAS signaling. Mutations in the PI3K pathway occur in a fraction of all melanoma subtypes, indicating a selective advantage for PI3K/AKT activation beyond BRAF or RAS activation. We and others have reported ARF6-dependent ERK activation occurring upon either extracellular ligand stimulation or mutant oncoprotein signaling. Recently, ARF6 has also been shown to be upstream of PI3K signaling. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that ARF6 is critical for both the RAF and PI3K arms of the RAS pathway and that loss of ARF6 will impede tumor growth driven by these oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis using human melanoma cell lines and with an inducible, genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of melanoma. Our data reveal that pharmacologic inhibition of ARF6 can reduce proliferation of BRAF, NRAS and NF1-mutated melanoma cells. Furthermore, loss of Arf6 causes a reduction in mean tumor size and improves survival in BRAFV600E/CDKN2ANULL/PTENNULL/AKTE17K and BRAFV600E/CDKN2ANULL/PTENNULL mice. These results indicate that ARF6 is necessary for melanomagenesis and for oncogenic BRAF and/or PI3K signaling. Our data suggest that ARF6 may be an actionable node in the RAS pathway and that therapeutic targeting of ARF6 has the potential to improve current treatment methods for progressive disease.
Citation Format: Lehi Acosta, Aaron Rogers, Jingfu Peng, Alan Mueller, Zongzhong Tong, Donghan Shin, Jae Hyuk Yoo, Dean Y. Li, Shannon J. Odelberg, Sheri L. Holmen, Allie H. Grossmann. The small GTPase ARF6 is necessary for melanomagenesis [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018; 2018 Apr 14-18; Chicago, IL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2018;78(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 4367.