Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of mesothelial tissues that has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Pass et al. (N Engl J Med 2012) identified the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-3 as an accurate biomarker of MM progression, which can be detected in the tumor parenchyma and in pleural effusions. Here, we report a systematic study of the mechanisms of fibulin-3 in MM and its value as a molecular target. Fibulin-3 activated canonical NFkB signaling and regulated the expression of NFkB-downstream genes, including the proteases MMP9 and MMP13, and the proinvasive proteins TNC and MLCK. Fibulin-3 knockdown downregulated NFkB signaling, reduced MM cell viability and potentiated the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in vitro. We next developed a function-blocking antibody ("mAb428.2") against an epitope of fibulin-3 required for NFkB activation (Nandhu et al., Clin Cancer Res 2017). This antibody blocked fibulin-3 signaling in vitro and reduced the expression of this protein, as well as NFkB-regulated MMP9, in subcutaneous (sc) MM tumors implanted in nude mice. Next, we treated mice carrying sc or intrapleural models of MM with mAb428.2 or control IgG1 (8x 30 mg/kg, q24h) delivered IV. Our anti-fibulin-3 antibody caused a significant reduction of tumor burden and extension of overall survival in both models. Overall, downregulation and inhibition of fibulin-3 proved a successful approach to enhance MM therapy. Given the value of this protein as a MM biomarker, we expect that detection of fibulin-3 may serve to identify patients with the highest chance to respond to combination therapies including anti-fibulin-3 approaches, achieving maximum therapeutic against these aggressive tumors.
Citation Format: Mohan Sobhana Nandhu, Chandra Goparaju, Sharon L. Longo, Harvey I. Pass, Mariano S. Viapiano. Targeting malignant mesothelioma with an antibody against the tumor extracellular matrix protein fibulin-3 [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018; 2018 Apr 14-18; Chicago, IL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2018;78(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 2769.