Ulcerative colitis is a risk factor for colon cancer. Dietary lutein, a nutrient rich in kale, is inversely associated with the risk of developing colon cancer in human observational epidemiologic studies. Besides lutein, kale also contains abundant amounts of other bioactive components with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. As a whole food approach, kale may provide more favorable biologic effects on colonic inflammation and neoplasia than lutein alone. Additionally, it is unclear if lutein prevents colon neoplasia via the inhibition of colonic inflammation. Using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and neoplasia mouse model, we evaluated the effects of dietary lutein supplementation and kale on the DSS-induced colorectal inflammation, ulceration, hyperplasia, dysplasia and cancer. Two hundred sixty four 8-week old Swiss-Webster (CFW) mice were assigned to one of ten groups (n = 26 to 27 in each group [13 males and 13 to 14 females]) for 21 weeks as follows: 1) 0.0005% of lutein plus DSS; 2) 0.001% of lutein plus DSS; 3) 0.002% of lutein plus DSS; 4) 0.005% of lutein plus DSS; 5) kale equivalent to 0.0005% of lutein plus DSS; 6) kale equivalent to 0.001% of lutein plus DSS; 7) kale equivalent to 0.002% of lutein plus DSS; 8) kale equivalent to 0.005% of lutein plus DSS; 9) DSS only; and 10) control with no treatment. During the 21-week experimental period, mouse body weights were recorded weekly. At week 7, the mice in groups 1-9 were given DSS for 4 cycles (1 cycle = 1 week 3% of DSS in drinking water followed by 2-week water) to induce colitis and colorectal neoplasia. This report described the findings on the presence of clinical signs of colitis (hemoccult and loose stools, which were evaluated at the end of each week throughout the experiments), and the findings from histopathological evaluations (inflammation, ulceration, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia). Dietary lutein and kale, particularly two higher doses (0.002% and 0.005%), reduced the DSS-induced hemoccult and loose stools, as well as the DSS-induced inflammation, ulceration, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. These data suggest that dietary lutein and kale may prevent the DSS-induced colorectal inflammation and associated preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions.

Grant Funding Sources: This project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2014-67017-21754 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and by USDA/ARS grant 1950-51000-074S.

Citation Format: Chun Liu, Roderick T. Bronson, Xiang-Dong Wang. Biological effects of lutein and kale on the prevention of colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference on Colorectal Cancer: From Initiation to Outcomes; 2016 Sep 17-20; Tampa, FL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(3 Suppl):Abstract nr A31.