Introduction: Prior to the introduction of immunotherapies, treatment options were limited for patients (pts) with NSCLC who progressed after first-line platinum doublet chemotherapy. The majority of pts with advanced disease died within 1 y of diagnosis, and 5-y survival for metastatic NSCLC was ~1%. Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, showed encouraging activity in pts with heavily pretreated advanced NSCLC in a phase 1 dose-escalation cohort expansion trial (CA209-003; NCT00730639). Based on improved overall survival (OS) versus docetaxel in 2 phase 3 studies in previously treated advanced NSCLC (CheckMate 017 and 057), nivolumab was approved in this population. Reports of long-term efficacy and safety with immune checkpoint inhibitors are limited. Here we report updated results from CA209-003 based on ~5 y of follow-up, representing the longest survival follow-up for an immune checkpoint inhibitor in advanced NSCLC to date.
Methods: Pts with heavily pretreated (1-5 prior systemic regimens) advanced NSCLC received nivolumab (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg) every 2 wk in 8-wk cycles for up to 96 wk. The primary objective was safety and tolerability; secondary objectives included objective response rate and duration of response. OS from the time of first dose was an exploratory objective. The minimum follow-up for the current analysis was 58.25 mo.
Results: At database lock, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated 5-y OS rate in all pts (N = 129) was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10, 23). OS rates at 5 y were similar in pts with squamous (SQ; n = 54; 16% [95% CI: 8, 28]) and non-SQ (n = 74; 15% [95% CI: 8, 25]) NSCLC (excludes 1 pt with unknown histology). Of the 16 pts who survived ≥5 y (median age: 61.5 y [range: 44, 80]), 9 pts were male and 12 were current smokers at baseline (2 former smokers; 2 unknown). In 10 evaluable pts, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was ≥1% in 7 pts (≥50% in 5) and <1% in 3 pts. Nine of the 16 pts completed the maximum number of nivolumab cycles per protocol; the remainder discontinued due to adverse events (n = 4), disease progression (n = 2), and initiation of a new treatment regimen (n = 1). Twelve of the 16 pts achieved a partial response, and 2 pts each had stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD) as best overall response (BOR) to nivolumab. At 5 y, per investigator, 12 pts had received no further therapy after stopping nivolumab treatment and were without evidence of PD. Further details of the disease and treatment course in select pts will be presented.
Conclusions: Nivolumab resulted in durable OS in a notable proportion of pts with pretreated advanced NSCLC, as demonstrated by a 5-y OS rate of 16%. Long-term survivors had diverse baseline and on-treatment characteristics including histology, PD-L1 expression level (including pts with <1% PD-L1), and BOR to nivolumab (including pts with SD/PD).
Citation Format: Julie Brahmer, Leora Horn, David Jackman, David Spigel, Scott Antonia, Matthew Hellmann, John Powderly, Rebecca Heist, Lecia Sequist, David C. Smith, Philip Leming, William J. Geese, Dennis Yoon, Ang Li, Scott Gettinger. Five-year follow-up from the CA209-003 study of nivolumab in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Clinical characteristics of long-term survivors [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr CT077. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-CT077