Immune checkpoint blockade has shown considerable therapeutic promise in the clinic. However, single agent activity is compromised by the presence of suppressive myeloid cells, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, in the tumor microenvironment. Epigenetic alterations can significantly contribute to the development of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and recent data have suggested that combining epigenetic-based therapies with immunotherapeutic agents can lead to improved efficacy in preclinical models. Since Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been shown to play a critical role in hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that inhibition of LSD1 could have a direct effect on myeloid cell differentiation and potentially restore normal myelopoiesis in cancer patients. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated INCB059872, a potent, selective and orally available FAD-directed covalent inhibitor of LSD1 in several experimental models. In an in vitro differentiation assay, the majority of CD34+ progenitor cells were driven to a monocytic phenotype in the presence of INCB059872, while control treated cells differentiated toward granulocytic PMN cells. Similar results were observed in vivo. Using the orthotopic 4T1 mammary cancer model, the myeloid compartment was characterized in tumor tissues following treatment with INCB059872. Notably, the population of PMN-MDSC was significantly decreased in tumor tissues following oral administration of INCB059872, whereas the macrophage population was increased. These data suggest that INCB059872 can redirect myeloid differentiation toward monocyte/macrophages and inhibit the differentiation of PMN-MDSC in this syngeneic tumor microenvironment. Consistently, intratumoral T lymphocyte infiltration was increased following INCB059872 treatment. The combination of INCB059872 and α-PD-L1 antibody enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in the 4T1 orthotopic tumor model. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of LSD1 with INCB059872 can directly affect myeloid differentiation to reduce the accumulation of myeloid suppressive cells, restoring the tumor microenvironment to be more responsive to PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockade. This study supports the therapeutic potential for the combination of an LSD1 inhibitor with immuno-therapeutic agents to improve overall clinical response in cancer patients.

Citation Format: Thomas Condamine, Steve Wang, Melody Diamond, Leslie Hall, Huiqing Liu, Antony Chadderton, Jin Lu, Chunhong He, Liangxing Wu, Timothy Burn, Wenqing Yao, Gregory Hollis, Reid Huber, Bruce Ruggeri, Peggy Scherle, Holly Koblish, Sang Hyun Lee. The LSD1 Specific Inhibitor INCB059872 enhances the activity of immune checkpoint blockade by reshaping the myeloid compartment in the syngeneic 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 4635. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-4635