Deacetylation of histone gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. HDACs catalyse the removal of the acetyl moiety from the lysine residues of proteins including the core nucleosomal histones. Through removal of critical acetyl groups from histones, HDACs can create a chromatin conformation that can prevent the transcription of genes that encode for proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. Thus together with histone acetyltransferases (HATs), HDACs regulate the level of acetylation and alter multitude of cellular functions and their characteristics. Several alterations of HDAC and HAT levels and activities have been found to be enacted by translocation, amplification, overexpression, or mutation of the relevant genes in a variety of cancers. In many cancer cell lines, overexpression or activation of the HDAC enzymes result in histone hypo-acetylation and consequent promotion of pro-cancerous mechanisms. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors represent a potential new class of antitumor agents with cytotoxic activity and the ability to regulate gene expression in tumor cells. In this study we evaluated the effects of Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid), which is a potent inhibitor of HDAC activity, on cell cycle regulation in MDM2 (mouse double minute 2 homolog) overexpressing cells. MDM2 amplification or overexpression is found in many tumors that eventually lead to the inactivation of the cell cycle control and loss of pro-apoptotic functions through both p53 dependent and independent mechanisms. The PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot analysis of MDM2 overexpressing prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-MST), after treating with Nutlin-3 (20 µm) and 17-AAG (10 µm), was able to trigger p21 expression and down-regulation of BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5). Similarly, when we treated the MDM2 transfected LNCaP-MST cells with vorinostat (7.5 µm for 24 hrs), some of the above mentioned changes, similar to Nutlin-3 treatment, were observed. As a result of HDAC inhibition the mRNA levels of p21, p53 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated, while the levels of BIRC5 was significantly down-regulated. Thus, treatment of MDM2 overexpressing cell lines with HDAC inhibitor resulted in activation of p21 and consequent decrease in cell proliferation due to resumption of cell cycle arrest. Our results with LNCaP-MST cells offer convincing evidence to suggest that the inhibition of HDAC can control cell proliferative signals in MDM2 overexpressing prostate cancer cells. (The generous support from the Royal Dames of Cancer Research Inc., Ft. Lauderdale, Florida is gratefully acknowledged).

Citation Format: Thiagarajan Venkatesan, Ali Alaseem, Khalid Alhazzani, Thanigaivelan Kanagasabai, Appu Rathinavelu. Effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on gene expression in MDM2 transfected prostate cancer cells [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 309. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-309