Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN), largely considered to be therapy-related. Studies of cancer predisposition genes (CPGs) and risk of SN among long-term survivors are lacking. We characterized germline mutations in CPGs in childhood cancer survivors to determine their contribution to SN risk. Whole genome (30x) and exome (100x) sequencing was performed for 2988 5+ year survivors of childhood cancer (1629 leukemia/lymphoma, 332 CNS, 1027 other solid tumors, 53% male, median follow-up 28 [range 6-55] years). Survivors underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, treatment exposures were abstracted from medical records, and SN were validated by pathology reports. Germline mutations in 63 CPGs were classified using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines as previously described (Zhang et al. NEJM 2015). Logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex and race, was used to evaluate associations between mutation status, cancer therapy and the SN risk. 1062 SNs were diagnosed in 437 survivors, of whom 98 developed ≥2 histologically distinct SNs. Median age at SN and time to first SN was 38.2 (range 3.3-67.4) and 29.2 (0.9-48.4) years, respectively. Common SNs were basal cell carcinoma (542 in 153 survivors), meningioma (201 in 100), thyroid (64 in 64), and breast cancer (58 in 50). Cumulative incidence of SN at age 45 was 25.5% (95% CI: 22.9-27.9). 169 survivors (5.7%) had a pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) mutation in a CPG, consisting of 97 single nucleotide variations, 63 insertion/deletions and 9 copy number alterations (49% of mutations not in ClinVar). Frequently mutated genes were: RB1 (n=41), NF1 (n=22), BRCA2 (n=13), BRCA1 (n=12) and TP53 (n=10). Our data confirmed known associations between CPG mutations and specific primary diagnoses including RB1 mutations in 32 of 41 (78%) of bilateral and 7 of 57 (12%) of unilateral retinoblastoma survivors, 22 NF1 (20 of 332 CNS survivors), 4 SUFU (all in medulloblastoma survivors) and 5 WT1 mutations (all in Wilms’ tumor survivors). Analyses revealed novel associations between CPG mutations and SN risk. Among 1326 survivors not exposed to radiation therapy (non-RT), 62 SNs developed in 54 survivors, of which 15 (24.2%) occurred in P/LP mutation carriers. Non-RT exposed survivors with a P/LP mutation had an increased risk of SN (OR=5.6, 95% CI=2.6-12.0, P<0.001) and the odds of developing ≥2 distinct histologic types of SNs was increased by 23.6-fold (95% CI=5.4-102.7, P<0.001). In 1662 RT exposed survivors, P/LP-mutation carriers had an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% CI=0.9-6.0, P=0.08) for developing ≥2 distinct histologic types of SNs. Our findings indicate that a substantial proportion of non-RT exposed childhood cancer survivors who develop one or more SN carry a CPG mutation, and should be referred to genetic testing and counseling services.

Citation Format: Zhaoming Wang, Carmen L. Wilson, John Easton, Dale Hedges, Qi Liu, Gang Wu, Michael Rusch, Michael Edmonson, Shawn Levy, Jennifer Q. Lanctot, Eric Caron, Kyla Shelton, Kelsey Currie, Matthew Lear, Heather L. Mulder, Donald Yergeau, Celeste Rosencrance, Bhavin Vadodaria, Yadav Sapkota, Russell J. Brooke, Wonjong Moon, Evadnie Rampersaud, Xiaotu Ma, Shuoguo Wang, Ti-Cheng Chang, Stephen Rice, Andrew Thrasher, Aman Patel, Cynthia Pepper, Xin Zhou, Xiang Chen, Wenan Chen, Angela Jones, Braden Boone, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Chimene A. Kesserwan, Kim E. Nichols, James R. Downing, Melissa M. Hudson, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L. Robison, Jinghui Zhang. Germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes and risk for subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 3001. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-3001