Background KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are molecularly and histologically diverse. Epithelial-like cells are more KRAS dependent, whereas mesenchymal-like cells are less KRAS dependent. These two subtypes are designated KE (epithelial) and KM (mesenchymal), respectively. A KE versus KM subtype transcriptional signature reveals specific modes of KRAS dependent survival signaling in the KE subtype. This KRAS dependency signature is significantly enriched with predicted microRNA (miRNA) target genes of miR-205 and miR-34b/c. MiRNAs can function as tumor suppressors by coordinately regulating multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. The role of deregulated miRNA function in mediating the survival of KM versus KE NSCLC cells has not been investigated to date.
Methods Differential miRNA expression in KRAS mutant cell lines was determined using Taqman low-density qPCR arrays (TLDA). Functional miRNA reconstitution experiments of downregulated miRNAs were performed in a panel of KM cell lines. Effects on apoptosis and autophagy were performed by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and live cell microscopy and caspase assays. The molecular targets of miR-124 were computationally identified by TargetScan or miRWalk and experimentally verified using 3’UTR luciferase-based assays. Functional rescue of miRNA-dependent cell viability defects was determined by ectopic predicted target gene expression.
Results Comparison of KE to KM cells yielded a KE-KM miRNA subtype classifier/signature. This signature revealed a number of silenced or suppressed miRNAs in KM cell lines, including members of the miR-200 family. MiR-200 and miR-205 reconstitution in KM cells modulated epithelial plasticity by Zeb1 protein suppression and increased E-cadherin levels. Reconstitution of miR-124, miR-625 and miR-518-3p in KM cells caused pronounced loss of cell viability. Furthermore, miR-124 caused autolysosome maturation defects. We identified SQSTM1/p62, TRAF6 and RELA/p65 as key predicted targets of miR-124. MiR-124 reconstitution in KM cells caused decreased p62, TRAF6 and p65 protein levels. The effect of miR-124 on p62 expression was verified using a Luciferase-p62-3’UTR reporter construct. Overexpression of p62 in KM cells rescued the cell viability defects caused by miR-124.
Conclusion These studies implicate miR-124 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor miRNA in KM subtype cells. MiR-124 directly suppresses expression of SQSTM1/p62 to promote defects in autolysosome maturation. In parallel, miR-124 suppresses RELA/ p65 and in some cases, TRAF6, to alter expression levels of several cytokines. Thus, miR-124 coordinately regulates autophagy and inflammation to disrupt the finely-tuned balance between pro and anti-inflammatory signals, resulting in cytotoxic effects in a specific subtype of mesenchymal-like KRAS mutant NSCLC cells.
Citation Format: Anita K. Mehta, Kevin Hua, William Whipple, Mihn-Thuy Nguyen, Rushika M. Perera, Johanns Haybaeck, Joanne Weidhass, Jeffrey Settleman, Anurag Singh. MiR-124 suppresses p62 and p65/NFkB to regulate autophagy, inflammation and cell death in KRAS mutant mesenchymal NSCLC cells [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 2524. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-2524