Background: We developed SET4 as a targeted, droplet-based, next-generation RNA sequencing assay to measure both the SETER/PR index of gene expression and the percent of estrogen receptor (ER) transcripts with point mutation in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) in metastatic biopsies of Stage IV breast cancer. The SETER/PR index (31 genes) is a cumulative measure of gene expression for transcripts associated with ER and progesterone receptor (PR), excluding those with a direct role in proliferation. High SETER/PR could indicate increased sensitivity to endocrine therapy, whereas LBD mutations indicate resistance but might also induce high SETER/PR.
Methods: Targeted needle biopsies from a metastatic site were prospectively obtained from 82 patients with HR+/HER2- breast cancer at time of any progression event, and preserved in RNAlater. Samples were prepared for targeted sequencing on a MiSeq by combining purified total RNA with SET4 primers and RT-PCR master mix into single molecule-formatted picodroplets using a RainDrop Source instrument, followed by thermal cycling and sample indexing. Calculated SETER/PR index and percent ER transcripts with LBD mutations were evaluated as continuous variables and compared to progression-free and overall survival using Cox regression analysis with log-rank test, if the next treatment after biopsy included endocrine therapy.
Results: The average read depth for the LBD of the ER transcript was 33,475X (range: 1230-180,889X), confidently detecting mutation at 1% frequency. LBD mutations were identified in 17% (14/82) of metastases (range of mutated transcripts 1%-98%). LBD mutations (>10% of transcripts) were only observed in metastases with higher SETER/PR (above the median). In patients who next received endocrine therapy (n=58), higher SETER/PR predicted longer progression-free (PFS) (HR=0.37, p=0.0004, Δ median PFS 9 months) and overall survival (OS) (HR=0.49, p=0.03). The predictions were more pronounced in patients without LBD mutation (PFS HR=0.32, p=0.0001, Δ median PFS 13 months; OS HR=0.42, p=0.01). Currently, there are insufficient cases with LBD mutation for reliable survival analysis.
Conclusion: The SET4 assay measured the percent of ER transcripts with activating LBD mutation (≥1% prevalence) and also downstream ER/PR-related transcription. High SETER/PR predicted longer PFS and OS with endocrine therapy. While activating LBD mutations may be associated with endocrine resistance of Stage IV cancer, they were associated with high SETER/PR index. Consequently, metastatic cancers with high SETER/PR index and no LBD mutation in ER transcripts were particularly sensitive to endocrine therapy. This single assay unraveled a possible interaction between genotype, phenotype, and treatment outcome; and is currently being evaluated in a larger cohort of patients.
Citation Format: Rosanna Lau, Lily Fu, Michael Samuels, Rashmi K. Murthy, Bruno Sinn, Jane Yu, Rebekah Gould, Jennifer Litton, Alda Tam, Stacy Moulder, Daniel Booser, Debu Tripathy, Vicente Valero, Fraser Symmans. A targeted RNA-seq assay to measure activating ER mutations and ER/PR-associated gene expression predicts sensitivity to endocrine therapy for metastatic breast cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 1796. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-1796