The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a major regulator of tumor cell growth, proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway through multiple mechanisms has been described in solid tumor malignancies, including activating and transforming “hotspot” mutations as well as amplification of PIK3CA that encodes the p110 alpha subunit of PI3K. Hotspot mutations of PIK3CA mutation are frequently observed in breast cancer with a prevalence of approximately 30%. GDC-0077 is a potent inhibitor of PI3K alpha (IC50 = 0.038 + 0.003 nM) and exerts its activity by binding to the ATP binding site of PI3K, thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of PIP2 to PIP3. Biochemically, GDC-0077 is more than 300-fold selective over other Class I PI3K isoforms such as beta, delta, and gamma and more than 2000 fold more selective over PI3K class II and III family members. Importantly, GDC-0077 is more selective for mutant versus wild-type PI3K alpha in cell based assays. Compared to the PI3K inhibitor, taselisib, the improved biochemical selectivity of GDC-0077 against PI3K delta is demonstrated in human CD69+ B-cells, which are primarily dependent on PI3K delta for proliferation and survival and were more sensitive to taselisib than GDC-0077. Mechanism of action studies indicate that GDC-0077 induces depletion of mutant PI3K alpha protein resulting in reduction of PI3K pathway biomarkers such as pAkt and pPRAS40, inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in human PIK3CA mutant breast cancer cell lines to a greater extent when compared to PIK3CA wild-type cells. In vivo, daily oral treatment with GDC-0077 in cell-culture-derived and patient derived PIK3CA mutant breast cancer xenograft models, resulted in tumor regressions, induction of apoptosis and a reduction of pAkt, pPRAS40, and pS6RP in a dose-dependent fashion. In vivo efficacy in a PIK3CA-mutant human breast cancer xenograft model was also improved when GDC-0077 was combined with standard-of-care therapies for hormone-receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer such as anti-estrogens (fulvestrant) or CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib). Collectively, the preclinical data provide rationale for evaluating GDC-0077, a PI3K alpha mutant selective inhibitor, as a single agent and in combination with standard-of-care endocrine and targeted therapies that may provide additional benefit to patients that harbor PIK3CA mutations.

Citation Format: Kyle Edgar, Emily Hanan, Steven Staben, Stephen Schmidt, Rebecca Hong, Kyung Song, Amy Young, Patricia Hamilton, Alfonso Arrazate, Cecile de la Cruz, Marcia Belvin, Michelle Nannini, Lori S. Friedman, Deepak Sampath. Preclinical characterization of GDC-0077, a specific PI3K alpha inhibitor in early clinical development [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 156. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-156