By means of a phenomenon termed “the Warburg effect,” tumor cells shift their energy production by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, resulting in the upregulation of glucose consumption and increased cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress. To compensate for such toxic levels of ROS/RNS, cancer cells rely heavily on their antioxidant defense mechanisms, which are largely controlled by the NAD(P)/NAD(P)H redox partners. We found that the modulation of NAD metabolism in vivo, specifically via the deletion of the NAD glycohydrolase CD38, resulted in increased production of intrinsic ROS and increased DNA damage following exposure to chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that CD38 knockdown in CD38-expressing tumor cells prevented the generation of stable transfectants, highlighting a role for CD38 in tumor cell survival. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of CD38 may be an effective therapy for the treatment of hematological cancers, in particular those which uniformly overexpress CD38, such as MM and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Indeed, treatment of human MM cell lines LP-1 and KMS-12-PE with CD38 antagonists sensitized the cells to standard ROS-inducing chemotherapeutics. We conducted a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign of over two hundred thousand unique and non-proprietary lead-like compounds using an optimized and miniaturized HTS based on a luminescent NAD quantitation platform. Five hundred active hits were analyzed for toxicity using a cell-based HTS assay purposely designed with CD38-negative HEK293 cells to avoid elimination of desirable compounds toxic to CD38-positive cells. Hits with non-specific properties, such as PAINS (Pan Assay Interference Compounds), were removed by computational filtering, and the remaining compounds were tested for inhibition of human CD38 activity in cells. The last phase of the compound progression pathway involved testing for non-selective inhibition of other NAD-consuming enzymes, namely Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and Sirtuin-1, which led to the identification of two distinct chemical series that exhibit >10-fold selectivity for human CD38. Hit-to-lead chemistry is currently underway to synthesize key analogs by rational drug design. In summary, our data suggests that CD38 is an antioxidant protein selectively used to maintain a cellular redox balance, and proposes that targeting the enzymatic activity of CD38 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for chemosensitizing hematological cancers. Our HTS campaign efforts are paving the way for the discovery and development of potent and selective small-molecule inhibitors of CD38.
Citation Format: Davide Botta, Tulin Dadali, Betty J. Mousseau, Fen Zhou, Michael D. Schultz, Esther Zumaquero, Anna Manouvakhova, Melinda I. Sosa, Sara N. McKellip, LaKeisha Woods, Nichole A. Tower, Larry J. Ross, Lynn Rasmussen, E. Lucille White, Indira Padmalayam, Wei Zhang, Maaike Everts, Corinne E. Augelli-Szafran, James R. Bostwick, Mark J. Suto, Frances E. Lund. High-throughput screening efforts for the identification of selective and potent inhibitors of CD38 for the treatment of hematological cancers. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr LB-055.