The presence of functional P-selectin ligands is well-documented for human colon cancer cell lines, but not in situ on human colon carcinoma tissue. Presently, immunostaining with antibodies is used to detect critical components of selectin ligands, e.g., sialofucosylated moieties. However, this static biochemical tissue analysis (SBTA) cannot ascertain if a potential selectin ligand is able to mediate (rolling) adhesion. Due to the immense difficulty in detecting functional selectin ligands using traditional methods, we have developed a flow-based assay known as dynamic biochemical tissue analysis (DBTA) for detecting functional selectin ligands expressed on human tissue. DBTA using P-selectin microspheres was performed on colon cancer tissue sections from multiple cases, in conjunction with SBTA using P-selectin, antibodies against purported selectin ligand carbohydrate moieties sLeX and sLeA (HECA-452, CSLEX-1, and KM-231), and antibodies against peptide structures of putative P-selectin ligands (CD24, CD44, and PSGL-1). Examination of serial sections, in the same regions of tissue displaying DBTA probe adhesion, revealed significant detection inconsistencies with SBTA. Subsequently, due to the well-documented force-dependency of selectin ligands, DBTA was conducted with microspheres coated with either HECA-452, CSLEX-1, or KM-231 to determine the effect of applied force on the detection capabilities of these antibodies. Analysis of signet ring cell colon carcinoma tissue revealed microspheres coated with HECA-452, CSLEX-1, or KM-231 antibodies all displayed significantly lower amounts of adhesion than the DBTA P-selectin microspheres. Interestingly, although microspheres coated with these antibodies adhered to signet ring cell carcinoma tissue, these DBTA probes did not interact with all regions of tissue that displayed adhesion with P-selectin microspheres. Specificity of interaction was validated using corresponding isotype control coated microspheres. Taken together, these results show DBTA with P-selectin coated microspheres is able to unequivocally detect functional P-selectin ligands, in contrast to SBTA (immunostaining) and DBTA using microspheres coated with antibodies. In summary, DBTA using P-selectin coated microspheres is able to detect functional P-selectin ligands expressed on colon cancer tissue, data that may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for malignant tumors.
Citation Format: Eric W. Martin, Ramiro Malgor, Vicente A. Resto, Douglas J. Goetz, Monica M. Burdick. Detection of functional P-selectin ligands expressed on colon cancer tissue using a novel flow-based assay. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 4944.