In various animal models, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have demonstrated cancer preventive effects. This protective effect is associated with reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). On the other hand, an endogenous DNA adduct formed from the peroxidation of ω-3 PUFAs, γ-hydroxy-1, N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (γ-OHPdG), is known to be mutagenic. In light of these observations, we hypothesized that the combination of n-3 PUFAs with an antioxidant to inhibit lipid peroxidation (e.g. α-lipoic acid) will result in an enhanced cancer preventive effect than n-3 PUFAs alone. The chemical carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced HCC model is employed in this study. The DEN-induced HCC model has a histology and genetic signature similar to that of human HCCs, such that it has poor prognosis and recapitulates a dependence on inflammatory signaling. It also reflects the same gender disparity seen in human HCCs. Fat-1 transgenic mice were used because they express a Caenorhabditis elegans desaturase converting n-6 to n-3 PUFAs endogenously without using dietary supplementation. This model underlies the importance of dietary control of PUFAs intake and ratios due to the inability of mammalian cells to generate anti-inflammatory n-3 PUFAs from pro-inflammatory n-6 PUFAs, which are a major component of the standard Western diets. The results showed that antioxidant can efficiently suppress the elevated level of γ-OHPdG in fat-1 mice. The tumor incidence, multiplicity, and size are monitored continuously. This work was supported by the NCI grant: RO1-CA-134892. Y.F. thanks the Prevent Cancer Foundation for his fellowship (Marcia and Frank Carlucci Charitable Foundation Award in Cancer Prevention and Early Detection)
Citation Format: Ying Fu, Angela Y. Bai, Marcin Dyba, Jing X. Kang, Fung-Lung Chung. Using antioxidant to enhance liver cancer preventive effect of n-3 PUFAs. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 4314.