Background: Numerous epidemiologic studies have examined the association between aspirin (ASA), non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the development of glioma, but the results have been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the intake of these drugs and glioma risk in a large, international case-control study.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2015, the Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC) recruited newly diagnosed glioma cases and matched controls in 14 different sites across five countries. Each subject was interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to obtain NSAIDs and ASA use. We examined the associations between ever use (at least > 6 months), duration of drug use and glioma histology. Ever use data on 4533 glioma cases and 4171 controls was combined using maximum likelihood estimation/restricted maximum likelihood meta-analysis methods. Furthermore, based on a priori hypotheses, we performed subgroup analyses based on gender and glioma histological grades.

Results: Use of ASA for > 6 months was associated with a 33% lower glioma risk compared to those who never took it (adjusted Meta-OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.83). Duration of intake showed a significant trend test (p < 0.0001), with ORs became lower for increasing number of years of ASA use. In subgroup analyses, intake of ASA was significantly associated with glioma risk in both men and women (adjusted Meta-OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.84 for men; adjusted Meta-OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.93 for women). ASA intake was protective for grade IV glioma (glioblastoma) and grade II/III glioma (adjusted meta-OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 for glioblastoma; adjusted meta-OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 - 0.89 for grade II/III glioma). For NSAIDs intake, ever use > 6 months was not associated with glioma risk (adjusted meta-OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.71-1.07). However, NSAIDs use was protective for women (adjusted meta-OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.93) in subgroup analyses but not for men (adjusted meta-OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.86-1.23). The interaction between gender, NSAIDs and glioma risk was significant (p-value 0.0076).. Sensitivity analyses excluding those who took ASA or NSAIDs within the past 12 months for headache, and the removal of proxy respondents did not change our results.

Conclusion: ASA was associated with a significant protective effect for glioma, but NSAIDs were only associated with reduced glioma risk in women. Given the possibility of recall bias in case-control studies of brain tumors, we may verify dosage and duration of drug intake in those countries with electronic pharmacy records within the GICC.

Citation Format: Rose K. Lai, Renke Zhou, E. Susan Amirian, Christoffer Johansen, Michael E. Scheurer, Georgina N. Armstrong, Ching C. Lau, Elizabeth B. Claus, Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan, Dora Il’yasova, Joellen Schildkraut, Francis Ali-Osman, Siegal Sadetzki, Richard Houlston, Robert B. Jenkins, Daniel Lachance, Sara H. Olson, Jonine L. Bernstein, Ryan T. Merrell, Margaret R. Wrensch, Faith G. Davis, Sanjay Shete, Christopher I. Amos, Beatrice S. Melin, Melissa Bondy. Aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of glioma: Results from the Glioma International Case Control Study. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 3446.