OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4) is a T cell co-stimulatory receptor that potentiates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling during CD4+ and CD8+ T cell priming, effector cell differentiation and memory T cell recall responses. In preclinical mouse tumor models, surrogate anti-OX40 agonist antibodies have shown remarkable single agent anti-tumor efficacy, as well as the ability to combine effectively with other immunomodulatory antibodies and immune education strategies, such as therapeutic cancer vaccines. Agonistic antibodies targeting OX40 are predicted to counteract the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promote tumor-specific T cell immunity via two primary mechanisms: 1) binding and activating OX40 signaling in tumor-specific effector and memory T cells, thereby enhancing their responsiveness to tumor-associated antigens, and 2) co-engaging Fcγ receptors expressed by tumor-associated effector cells, and facilitating the selective depletion of intratumoral regulatory T cells.
INCAGN01949 is a novel fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody identified using the Retrocyte Display™ platform that is being developed for the treatment of advanced malignancies. INCAGN01949 recognizes human and cynomolgus monkey OX40 with comparable binding affinity. INCAGN01949 has been optimized to potently mediate receptor forward signaling under conditions of suboptimal TCR stimulation, leading to features like enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ, and concomitant suppression of IL-10. INCAGN01949 achieves this functionality through OX40 clustering and downstream activation of the NFκB pathway in T cells, which is sustained across a broad range of antibody concentrations. Consistent with mouse preclinical tumor models, OX40 was found to be selectively overexpressed by intratumoral regulatory T cells from a variety of primary human tumor samples. Commensurate with its human IgG1 Fc region, INCAGN01949 can effectively co-engage activating Fcγ receptors on immune effector cells, including natural killer cells and macrophages. Therefore INCAGN01949 has the potential to mediate selective effector cell activity toward intratumoral populations of regulatory T cells.
The biophysical and functional attributes of INCAGN01949 make it suited for clinical development, both as a single agent and in combination with other immunomodulatory antibodies or immune education strategies.
Citation Format: Ana Maria Gonzalez, Mariana L. Manrique, Ekaterina Breous, David Savitsky, Jeremy Waight, Randi Gombos, Yuqi Liu, Shiwen Lin, Taha Merghoub, Daniel Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Gerd Ritter, Jedd Wolchok, Peggy Scherle, Gregory Hollis, Reid Huber, Marc Van Dijk, Robert Stein, Nicholas S. Wilson. INCAGN01949: an anti-OX40 agonist antibody with the potential to enhance tumor-specific T-cell responsiveness, while selectively depleting intratumoral regulatory T cells. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 3204.