Adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells offers great opportunities in cancer immunotherapy, however until recently, HLA-Class II-restricted TCRs have been largely ignored.
We have identified and cloned HLA class II-restricted CD4+ T cells isolated from patients vaccinated with long peptides derived from antigens such as hTERT, survivin and frameshift mutated TGFβRII. Several of these cancer patients demonstrated outstanding clinical responses to peptide- or dendritic cell based cancer vaccines with >10-year survival. In these patients strong T-cell responses against peptides other than those used for vaccination were detected, suggesting epitope spreading.
Responses against certain peptides associated with clinical benefit were identified and CD4+ T-cell clones recognizing such peptides were isolated. In depth studies of their specificities lead to the selection of HLA-DR and -DQ restricted T-cells having high functional avidity for the HLA-peptide complexes. We studied tumor cell and/or protein recognition and found one telomerase-specific CD4+ T-cell clone recognizing a melanoma cell line with the corresponding HLA allele.
The TCR sequences of the interesting clones were identified. The ribosome skipping 2A sequence technique was used to express these TCRs in an mRNA expression vector or retrovirus. When expanded T cells were electroporated with these TCRs, both redirected CD8+ and CD4+ T cells produced TNF-α, IFN-γ and the degranulation marker (CD107a) following co-incubation with specific peptide-loaded targets.
We have demonstrated that choosing highly functional CD4+ T-cell clones specific for tumor-associated or -specific antigens from patients with clinical responses after immunotherapy treatment is a successful method for identifying highly functional HLA class II restricted TCRs for adoptive T-cell transfer.
The use of HLA class II-restricted TCRs may be of therapeutic value both in haematopoietic malignancies and in melanoma where tumor cells often express HLA class II. In addition, combining the redirection of T cells with both HLA class I- and class II-restricted TCRs may provide a more powerful therapeutic effect in adoptive T cell therapy.
Citation Format: Else M. Inderberg, Sébastien Wälchli, Marit R. Myhre, Kari Lislerud, Gunnar Kvalheim, Gustav Gaudernack. With a little help from CD4 T cells in adoptive T-cell transfer. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 2310.