Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecological malignancy and the fourth leading cancer in women in the United States. Hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is observed in ∼90% of EC cases and this pathway is the most prominent driver of endometrial carcinogenesis. Mutations in multiple PI3K/AKT pathway components (including PTEN, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, AKT) often coexist in EC, indicating that EC development requires full, unopposed activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. In this study, we identified PKCα as a negative regulator of AKT activation that suppresses endometrial carcinogenesis. Our analysis revealed that PKCα protein and mRNA are reduced or lost in 50% of EC cell lines and ∼60% of human ECs. PKCα deficiency was also observed in hyperplastic endometrial lesions in murine models with allelic knock-in of mutant Pten (ptenΔ4-5/+, ptenC124R/+ and ptenC129E/+) or endometrial-specific Pten deletion (ptenpr-/-, ptenltf-/-), indicating that loss of PKCα is an early event in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Mechanistic analysis has further revealed that loss of PKCα is independent of changes in PI3K/AKT signaling; however, the enzyme acts as a potent negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway in EC cells. PKC agonists reduced AKT phosphorylation/activity in EC cells that retain PKCα, via a PP2A-dependent mechanism. Conversely, PKCα knockdown led to increased AKT phosphorylation. Notably, while PKC agonists did not affect AKT in EC cells with loss of PKCα, exogenous expression of the enzyme in these cells restored the inhibitory effect of the agonists on PI3K/AKT signaling. Collectively these data indicate that PKCα has a restraining effect on PI3K/AKT signaling in EC cells, providing a basis for its loss during endometrial tumor progression.
Physiological relevance of these findings was established using cell lines, patient samples and mouse models. PKCα restoration in human EC cells decreased expression of oncogenes such as cyclin D1 and Id1 and abolished their anchorage-independent growth, supporting a tumor suppressive role for the isozyme in this tissue. Analysis of PKCα expression in patient specimens determined that loss of PKCα expression correlates with high grade disease. Finally, in mice heterozygous for mutant Pten, PKCα knockout led to a 3-fold increase in endometrial tumor burden at three months, confirming a role of PKCα as a tumor suppressor in the endometrium.
Taken together, our results provide evidence that PKCα 1) negatively regulates AKT signaling and the expression of important oncogenes in EC cells; and 2) functions as tumor suppressor in the endometrium whose loss is associated with disease progression. Thus, PKCα signaling represents a promising biomarker for risk stratification in early stage disease and may provide insight into therapeutic strategies for late stage disease.
Supported by NIH grants CA036727, CA016056, and DK60632.
Citation Format: Alice H. Hsu, Kathryn J. Curry, Kang-Sup Shim, Peter Frederick, Carl D. Morrison, Baojiang Chen, Subodh M. Lele, Takiko Daikoku, Sudhansu K. Dey, Gustavo Leone, Adrian R. Black, Jennifer D. Black. Protein kinase C alpha suppresses AKT activation in endometrial cancer. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2016 Apr 16-20; New Orleans, LA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2016;76(14 Suppl):Abstract nr 189.