Background: Historically, androgens have been utilized for the treatment of breast cancer (BC) as the androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in BC (75-95% of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and 50% of ER negative). Reports of the use of androgens in metastatic BC (MBC) indicate that women progressing on tamoxifen have the ability to respond to synthetic androgens with overall response rates in the range of 20-60%; however, these steroidal androgens also exhibit virilizing side effects, thus limiting clinical use. A non-steroidal, tissue-selective, AR modulator (SARM), such as enobosarm, offers a targeted approach of AR activation without virilization or estrogenic effects.

Methods: This is a phase II proof of concept study examining the efficacy and safety of once daily enobosarm 9 mg in post-menopausal women with ER+ MBC who had responded to adjuvant and/or salvage endocrine therapy. Therapy is continued until patients display evidence of disease progression. The proportion of AR+ patients with clinical benefit response (CBR) at 6 months is the primary endpoint; defined as patients with a complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) as detailed in modified RECIST 1.1. AR status of metastatic disease will be correlated with CBR. Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) will be assessed as a biomarker of AR activation by drug. Secondary endpoint is progression free survival (PFS).

Results: Patient demographics: mean age 63.7 years, mean time from diagnosis 11.0 years, 72.7% prior chemotherapy, 89% (17/19) AR+. After a median follow-up of 81 days (range 7-304 days), preliminary results of 22 patients: 9 SD as best response, median duration 212 days. Current disposition of patients: 15 PD after a median 80 days (range 15-304 days), 4 SD (1 on treatment for < 6 months), and 3 early discontinuations (days 7, 28, 255). Five patients have died due to PD off study. Among the 17 evaluable patients, 6 reached the primary endpoint (35.3%; 95% CI=16.6% to 59.4%) with increased PSA, thereby exceeding the pre-defined statistical threshold requiring that at least 3 of 14 patients with an AR+ metastatic lesion demonstrate clinical benefit. CR or PR has not been observed. Current six month Kaplan-Meier estimate of PFS is 43.8% (95% confidence interval=19.5% to 68.1%). Enobosarm is well-tolerated with common grade 1/2 toxicities of nausea (8%), menopausal symptoms (13%), pain (25%), fatigue (10%), weight change (4%); 5 (4%) grade 3 toxicities (3 unrelated to drug, 1 bone pain, 1 fatigue), and no grade 4 or higher toxicities reported. Final results of the study will be available in the fourth quarter of 2014.

Conclusions: Enobosarm demonstrates promise as a novel endocrine agent for AR+ MBC. The primary endpoint has been achieved, with 6/17 AR+ patients meeting statistical threshold for success (35% CBR at 6 months). Serum PSA appears to be a surrogate marker for AR activity associated with enobosarm administration. Based upon these favorable preliminary findings, a larger phase II study is anticipated.

Citation Format: Beth Overmoyer, Pedro Sanz-Altimira, Ann H Partridge, Martine Extermann, Jane Liu, Eric Winer, Nancy Lin, Michael Hassett, Leroy Parker, Ryan Taylor, Michael Hancock, Susan Small, Mary Ann Johnston. Enobosarm for the treatment of metastatic, estrogen and androgen receptor positive, breast cancer. Final results of the primary endpoint and current progression free survival [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium: 2014 Dec 9-13; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(9 Suppl):Abstract nr P1-13-04.