Introduction: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has identified genomic aberrations causing DNA repair defects in sporadic metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We hypothesized that single agent olaparib would have antitumor activity in a sub-population of mCRPC patients (pts) and that exome and transcriptome studies would identify this population.
Methods: TOPARP is an open-label, investigator-initiated phase II trial with a novel multi-step adaptive design (CRUK/11/029). The first part of the study (TOPARP-A) has a two-stage design evaluating the antitumor activity of single agent olaparib in unselected mCRPC pts (p0 = 0.05; p1 = 0.20; α = 0.02; β = 0.10) with a preplanned analysis to identify a biomarker defined sensitive subgroup. Primary endpoint, response rate (RR), was defined as objective response by RECIST 1.1 and/or PSA fall ≥50% and/or confirmed circulating tumor cell (CTC) count falls from ≥5 to <5/7.5ml blood (VeridexTM). Secondary endpoints included safety, tolerability, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Olaparib tablets (400mg bid) were administered to mCRPC pts progressing after 1-2 lines of chemotherapy. NGS and other studies from paired mandatory fresh CRPC biopsies, taken before and while on olaparib, evaluated putative predictive response biomarkers.
Results: Fifty pts were enrolled from 7 UK centers; all had had prior docetaxel, 48 (96%) prior abiraterone and 29 (58%) prior cabazitaxel. Overall, 16 of 49 evaluable pts experienced a response (RR 32.7%, 95% CI: 20.0 to 47.5), with 11 and 4 pts having been on treatment for >6 and >12 months respectively at data cut-off. NGS identified homozygous deletions and/or putatively deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes in 15/49 (30.6%) evaluable pts. While a majority of these genomic aberrations occurred in BRCA2 and ATM, biallelic loss of other relevant genes, including members of the Fanconi Anemia complementation group and CHEK2, were also observed. Among these fifteen pts, 13 (86.7%) responded to olaparib. All seven pts with BRCA2 loss (somatic [4/7] or germline [3/7]) and 4/5 pts with ATM truncating mutations responded to olaparib. The specificity of the biomarker suite was 94% in this population. Conversely, PTEN loss and ERG rearrangements were not associated with response. Finally, consistent with previous studies of olaparib, anemia (10/50, 20%) and fatigue (6/50, 12%) were the most common grade>3 adverse events, with 13 (26%) pts requiring a dose reduction.
Conclusions: Olaparib has durable antitumor activity in heavily pre-treated pts with sporadic mCRPC with a 32.7% overall response rate. Genomic defects in DNA repair genes associate with olaparib sensitivity in sporadic mCRPC, offering a possibility for the very first molecular treatment stratification of advanced prostate cancer.
Citation Format: Joaquin Mateo, Shahneen Sandhu, Susana Miranda, Suzanne Carreira, Suneil Jain, Christy Ralph, Andrew Protheroe, Syed Hussain, Robert Jones, Tony Elliot, Ursula McGovern, Alexa Gillman, Claire Paulding, Helen Mossop, Nuria Porta, Diletta Bianchini, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Gunther Boysen, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Penelope Flohr, George Seed, Jane Goodall, Ines Figueiredo, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Aurelius Omlin, Roberta Ferraldeschi, Lakshmi P. Kunju, Rosalind Eeles, Gerhardt Attard, Dan Robinson, Arul Chinnaiyan, Emma Hall, Johann S. de Bono. DNA repair defects and antitumor activity with PARP inhibition: TOPARP, a phase II trial of olaparib in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr CT322. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-CT322