RET (REarranged during Transfection) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (TK), which plays pivotal roles in regulating cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, migration and chemotaxis. Activating mutations in RET (C634W and M918T) have been identified in both familial and sporadic forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and correlate with aggressive disease progression, validating RET as a classical oncogene. Furthermore the recent identification of RET fusions (CCDC6-RET and KIF5B-RET) present in ∼1% of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) patients has renewed interest in the identification and development of more selective RET inhibitors lacking the toxicities associated with the current treatments.
At present, there are no known specific RET inhibitors in clinical development, although many potent inhibitors of RET have been identified opportunistically through selectivity profiling of compounds initially designed to target other TKs. Such “secondary RET inhibitors” include the clinical agents Vandetanib and Cabozantinib, both approved for use in MTC, but additional pharmacological activities (most notably inhibition of KDR) lead to dose-limiting toxicity.
Using a robust screening cascade developed in house, we have measured RET and KDR inhibitory activity in vitro and in relevant cell line models to assess compound potency and selectivity. Anti-proliferative activity and off-target toxicity of these agents have also been measured. Although these competitor compounds displayed reasonable RET potency in cellular assays and this translated into anti-proliferative effects in our MTC and LAD disease models, as expected none met our target candidate criteria, clearly highlighting the need for therapeutic agents with improved selectivity.
Guided by structure-based drug design, we have identified and optimised a novel series of potent and selective inhibitors of the RET kinase domain. These agents met our stringent criteria for enzyme and cell selectivity and, whilst potent in a RET-driven cell line, display little overt toxicity in a matched non-RET driven cell line. Herein, we describe the chemical optimisation of these agents and, using structural information, rationalise their improved selectivity.
Citation Format: Roger J. Butlin, Rebecca Newton, Mandy Watson, Gemma Hopkins, Ben Acton, Kate Bowler, Samantha Fritzl, Kristin Goldberg, Niall Hamilton, Sarah Holt, Stuart Jones, Allan Jordan, Nikki March, Daniel Mould, Helen Small, Alexandra Stowell, Ian Waddell, Bohdan Waszkowycz, Donald Ogilvie. The identification and structure-guided optimisation of potent and selective inhibitors of oncogenes in medullary thyroid carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2015 Apr 18-22; Philadelphia, PA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(15 Suppl):Abstract nr 778. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-778