The multi-gene hereditary cancer panel testing approach allows for the identification of probands carrying multiple mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency and phenotypes of individuals in our hereditary cancer panel cohort carrying multiple mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes. From March 2012 through October 2013, results were reported for 4382 individuals who underwent hereditary cancer panel testing at our laboratory. Panels included comprehensive analysis of 14-24 genes, depending on the panel ordered. Genes analyzed on each panel included both genes associated with defined hereditary cancer syndromes and genes not yet associated with a defined hereditary cancer syndrome, with moderate to high penetrance estimates. Panel results were reviewed to determine the number of probands carrying multiple pathogenic mutations or likely pathogenic variants in the genes analyzed, and retrospective test requisition form review was used to obtain clinician-reported clinical history information. Biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers were not counted as multiple mutation cases, nor were individuals carrying a monoallelic MUTYH mutation in combination with a mutation in a different gene. Nine probands (0.2%) were identified to carry two cancer-predisposing mutations. Mutations included 7 small insertions/deletions, 1 nonsense, 4 missense, 3 splicing, and 3 gross deletions. Five individuals carried two mutations in moderately-penetrant cancer susceptibility genes not associated with a defined hereditary cancer syndrome. Mutated gene combinations included CHEK2/CHEK2 (confirmed to be in trans), ATM/RAD50, ATM/CHEK2 (identified in two probands), and MRE11A/PALB2. Two individuals carried one mutation in a moderately-penetrant gene and one mutation in a highly-penetrant gene associated with a defined hereditary cancer syndrome (ATM/MSH6 and MLH1/CHEK2). The remaining two individuals carried two mutations in highly-penetrant genes (MSH6/MSH6 (phase unknown) and MSH2/MSH6). The average age at first primary cancer diagnosis was 42 years (range 16-66 years). All probands had a history of cancer, including six of the nine probands with a reported history of more than one primary cancer diagnosis. Results from this study indicate that a minority of probands undergoing hereditary cancer panel testing are identified to carry multiple mutations in cancer susceptibility genes. This data highlights the need for further research to determine the clinical implications of carrying multiple mutations in cancer susceptibility genes, particularly for those with mutations in moderately-penetrant genes. Detailed pedigree analysis, co-segregation analysis, and longitudinal follow-up will be helpful in clarifying cancer risks in these probands and the significance of multiple mutations in cancer susceptibility genes.
Citation Format: Chia-Ling Gau, Holly LaDuca, Hong Lu, AJ Stuenkel, Tina Pesaran, Elaine Chen, Jill Siegfried, Sharon Mexal, Robert Hoiness, Jill Cook, John Copenhaver, Elizabeth Chao. Identification of probands with multiple mutations in cancer susceptibility genes using a multigene panel approach. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference: Cancer Susceptibility and Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes; Jan 29-Feb 1, 2014; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2014;74(23 Suppl):Abstract nr 14. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.CANSUSC14-14