Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized as lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and TNBC patients have higher rates of recurrence and death compared with other breast cancer subtypes. For TNBC patients who fail standard chemotherapy, there are a lack of novel drug therapies, given the absence of well-defined molecular targets. Recently, a microarray meta-analysis identified 7 triple negative subtypes, including the validation of the luminal androgen receptor (LAR) positive subtype [Lehmann, 2011]. However, microarray technology is dependent on probe-target specificity and the 7 subtypes have yet to be validated using RNA sequencing data, and the presences of recurrent genomic alterations in the 7 subtypes are unknown.
We obtained 1106 breast cancer RNA-Seq bam files from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and aligned with Tophat v1.3. The PAM50 intrinsic gene signature was used to extract a cohort of 128 TNBC samples. Consensus clustering of genes, greater than 75th percentile of variance, was performed using Kmeans clustering in Spearman's correlation space. A nearest centroid prediction model was developed from genes differentially expressed among the clusters. Eighty independent TNBC RNA sequencing samples were obtained (British Colombia; BC) [Shah, 2012] which were calibrated to our TNBC conditional quantile normalized cohort and sub-typed by our model.
Using RNA-Seq gene expression count data, we identified 5 clusters, all of which were stable, including the LAR cluster. Signaling pathway impact analysis (SPIA) implicated cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, leukocyte transendothelial migration, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways commonly altered in the non-LAR TNBC subtypes. In contrast, cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction, endocrine regulated calcium reabsorption, and insulin signaling pathways were altered in the LAR versus non-LAR subtypes. Neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions were observed to be altered commonly between all sub-types. We then applied our model to the Shah, et al cohort. In this cohort, the LAR subtype was consistent with Shah's classification of ‘other’ TNBC and contained no basal samples by PAM50 intrinsic modeling. Analysis of sub-type specific mutation data from the BC cohort demonstrates an increased mutational load in ECM-related proteins, particularly the myosins, along with increased TP53 clonality in the non-LAR subtypes.
Using TCGA RNASeq data, we have confirmed the presence of 5 major TNBC subtypes, including the LAR; which was negligible in basal composition by PAM50 intrinsic modeling. SPIA pathway analysis indicates a core set of pathways demonstrating altered expression across the TNBC sub-types and the identification of molecular targets within each subtype is ongoing.
Citation Format: Kevin J. Thompson, Xiaojia Tang, Zhifu Sun, Jason P. Sinnwell, Hugues Sicotte, Douglas W. Mahoney, Steven Hart, Peter T. Vedell, Poulami Barman, Jeanette E. Eckel Passow, Eric D. Wieben, James N. Ingle, Judy C. Boughey, Liewei Wang, Richard Weinshilboum, Krishna R. Kalari, Matthew P. Goetz. Molecular classification of triple negative breast cancer via RNA-sequencing data. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2014 Apr 5-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2014;74(19 Suppl):Abstract nr 5592. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-5592