Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer of the head and neck region; in the USA, over 45,000 cases and about 11,000 deaths from the disease occur annually. Progress in the prevention and control of OSCC has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models that would reflect human exposure. Tobacco smoking is considered a major etiological factor in the development of oral cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of diets containing 5-10% freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) powder to inhibit the development of chemically-induced cancers in multiple organ sites in rodents including 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the hamster cheek pouch. However, DMBA is not present in the environment and the hamster cheek pouch model may not be applicable to humans. We had previously reported the carcinogenicity of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), an environmental pollutant and a tobacco smoke component, in mouse oral cavity. Recently, we demonstrated that administration of BRB at 5% in the diet can significantly reduce DNA adducts resulted from the administration of DB[a,l]P. It has also been shown that anthocyanins are the most abundant compounds in BRBs that can account for much of their antioxidant activity. In the current study, under identical conditions we compare the inhibitory effects of an anthocyanin enriched fraction extracted from black raspberry (BRBE), protocatechuic acid (PA, a major metabolite of anthocyanins) or ferulic acid (FA, a major phenolic acid in raspberries shown to reduce oral carcinogenesis) with BRB on DNA adducts induced by DB[a,l]P in mouse oral cavity. Levels of DB[a,l]PDE-DNA adducts were quantified by a LC-MS/MS method. We demonstrated that the administration of BRBE (1.6 %), protocatechuic acid (0.2%) or ferulic acid (0.05%) in the diet, starting 2 weeks before DB[a,l]P (24 nmol, 3 times a week for 5 weeks) significantly resulted in 29.6%, 23.0% or 25.3% reduction of the level of (-)-anti-trans-DB[a,l]PDE-dA in murine oral tissues, respectively, compared to a 19.2% reduction of BRB. Our results clearly showed that the anthocyanin components of BRB and its metabolite, PA, are responsible for the inhibitory effects of BRB on the DB[a,l]P- induced DNA adducts formation; in addition, BRB and its related components can inhibit the metabolic activation of DB[a,l]P, and may prevent the subsequent mutagenesis and carcinogenesis resulting from exposure to DB[a,l]P. Supported by NIH grant #CA173465.
Citation Format: Kun-Ming Chen, Shangmin Zhang, Yuan-Wan Sun, Cesar Aliaga, Krishnegowda Gowdahalli, Shantu Amin, Gary Stoner, Karam El-Bayoumy. The inhibitory effects of an anthocyanin enriched fraction of black raspberry (BRB), protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid on DB[a,l]P-induced DNA adduct formation in mouse oral tissues. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2014 Apr 5-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2014;74(19 Suppl):Abstract nr 230. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-230