Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate limiting step in the salvage pathway of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. NAMPT is reported to be overexpressed in a number of cancer and inflammatory indications. Because of the requirement of NAD as a co-factor or substrate for a number of key biochemical pathways including those catalyzed by PARP1, Sirtuins and ADP-ribosyl cyclase, inhibition of NAMPT has been shown to result in anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models. Two NAMPT Inhibitors FK866/APO866 and GMX1778 are currently in clinical trials for oncology indications. In the presence of these clinical agents, cultured cell lines show development of resistance due to mutations underscoring the potential need for inhibitors from distinct chemical series.
Here, we report a structure-guided drug design based approach for identification of lead compounds from two chemical series selectively targeting NAMPT. Determination of co-crystal structures with several de novo designed hits greatly aided in the identification of lead compounds that exhibited potent inhibition of NAMPT against both wild type and resistance mutants (G217R and H191R) Lead compounds were highly active in inhibiting proliferation that correlated well with cellular NAD depletion in several cancer cell lines. Normal cells and selected cancer cell lines have an NAMPT independent salvage pathway for biosynthesis of NAD, which is dependent on nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) and Nicotinic acid (NA). The anti-proliferative activities were fully rescued in NAPRT- proficient cell lines with the addition of NA, confirming the mechanism of action through specific NAD depletion. Lead compounds from both series exhibited excellent drug-like properties including solubility, metabolic stability and permeability, and desired exposure in pharmacokinetic studies. Anti-tumor activities of these compounds including NA rescue in NAPRT-proficient tumor models are currently being evaluated in preclinical models.
Citation Format: Murali Ramachandra, Chetan Pandit, Hosahalli Subramanya, Dinesh Chikkanna, Anirudha Lakshminarasimhan, Vinayak Khairnar, Sunil Panigrahi, Anuradha Ramanathan, Aparna Satyanandan, Narasimha Rao, Arnab Bera, Kishore Narayanan, Sreevalsam Gopinath, Raghuveer Ramachandra. Novel inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT). [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2013 Apr 6-10; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2013;73(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 5389. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-5389