Studies have shown that smoking is associated with both greater incidence and worse outcomes of prostate cancer. The mechanism involved in this adverse effect of cigarette smoke on prostate cancer cells is not known. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) would have an effect on in vitro cell proliferation and motility. CSC is the tar phase of smoke particulate. We submitted PC-3 cells for proliferation assays after 4 and 24 hours exposure to varying concentrations of CSC. We also performed motility assays and probed for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) using immunohistochemistry on cells exposed to CSC to investigate how the action of cigarette smoke induces more aggressive behavior in cells. Results showed that CSC caused up to 83% increase in cell proliferation depending on dose and time of exposure. The antioxidant Ebselen, a scavenger of H2O2 and hydroperoxides, decreased but did not abrogate the proliferation caused by CSC. There was no effect of CSC on cell motility in Boyden chamber assays. There was also no effect of CSC on EMT, which was demonstrated by testing the immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin after cell exposure to CSC. In conclusion, CSC increases cell proliferation, but has no effect on motility. This action of CSC is at least in part mediated by H2O2, as shown by Ebselen inhibition of cell proliferation. The increase in proliferation could in part explain the worse prognosis of patients who smoke.
Citation Format: Natalie Bodmer, Aishwarya Gokuldass, Theresa Kucynda, Virgilia Macias, Gnasekar Munirathinam, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla. The effect of tobacco on prostate cancer cell aggressiveness. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2013 Apr 6-10; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2013;73(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 3608. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-3608