BBR3610-DACH, a long-chain, bifunctional dinuclear PTII complex with a similar DNA binding mode to the Phase II clinical drug, BBR3464 and its potent analogue, BBR3610, was shown previously to be resistant to metabolic decomposition by sulfur-containing nucleophiles. Initial observations utilizing the alkaline comet assay indicate that BBR3610-DACH forms interstrand crosslinks. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that BBR3610-DACH inhibited cell proliferation and caused G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HCT116 colorectal cells in a time dependent manner accompanied with significant s phase depletion. Similar experiments with synchronized cells showed a distinct G1 phase arrest elicited by the drug following release from arrest. Immunoblotting revealed a stabilization of p53 between 6-24hr after treatment with 20μM (IC90) BBR3610-DACH, with a concomitant increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27. Cell proliferation assay using MTT and subsequent cell cycle studies with HCT116 p53-/- and HCT116 p21-/- indicated that the cytotoxicity profile of BBR3610-DACH was p21 dependent and partially dependent on the p53 status. However, no change was observed in the protein levels of cyclin E, CDK2, and CDC25A which are G1 phase regulators. Decrease in the levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1 at 24hrs suggested a G2/M block indicative of a possible mitotic catastrophe. Next, we examined whether the DNA damage sensor protein kinases, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3 related (ATR) had a role in the cell cycle regulation after drug treatment. Studies using the ATM inhibitor, KU-60019 and caffeine (inhibits both ATM and ATR) revealed no apparent role of ATM but a possible dependence on ATR. Following the cell cycle effects, BBR3610-DACH induced cell death as seen from cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) levels as early as 6hrs after drug treatment. Interestingly, no cleaved caspase 3 was seen suggesting a caspase-independent PARP cleavage. Together these findings suggest that BBR3610-DACH is a major cell cycle inhibitory DNA binding platinum agent that could be further developed as a major chemotherapeutic.
Citation Format: Vijay Menon, Erica Peterson, Sumitra Deb, Lawrence Povirk, Nicholas Farrell. The dinuclear platinum agent, BBR3610-DACH, exhibits a significant anti-proliferative effect: Regulation of G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2013 Apr 6-10; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2013;73(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 3427. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-3427