Background. African American men have 1.6 times the incidence and 2.4 times the mortality rate of prostate cancer, compared to Caucasian men. Thus, prostate cancer constitutes one of the most striking racial health disparities, the causation of which is not well understood. Main hypothesis. We hypothesized that select clinical and/or bio-behavioral risk factors are associated with prostate cancer in African American men. Participants and Methods. 105 African American men aged 34-80 (35 cases and 70 controls) were recruited. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were built to test the marginal and joint effects of the variables when predicting the cancer status. Results. In the univariable regression models, PSA (ng/ml; p<.001), smoking (cigarettes/day; p=0.011), diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, yes/no; p<.001), diagnosis of prostatitis (yes/no; p<.001) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, yes/no; p=<.001) were independently associated with the prostate cancer diagnosis. However, only PSA (4.340; (1.484, 12.689)) and diagnosis of BPH (14.248; (1.132, 179.310)) remained significant in the age-adjusted multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions. Our results suggest that, as expected, PSA levels are associated with prostate cancer in African American men. Interestingly, a history of BPH is also associated with prostate cancer in African American men. Despite the limitation of a small sample size, our data is in agreement to a recent report (Pettaway et al, 2011) in which African Americans with BPH were observed to have a much greater risk of developing prostate cancer than similar Caucasian men, highlighting differences in the biology of prostate cancer between populations. References Curtis A. Pettaway, Lois E. Lamerato, Michael T. Eaddy et al. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: racial differences in treatment patterns and prostate cancer prevalence. BJU International (1 0 8) 1 3 0 2 - 8, 2011

Citation Format: {Authors}. {Abstract title} [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 103rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2012 Mar 31-Apr 4; Chicago, IL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2012;72(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 3592. doi:1538-7445.AM2012-3592