Gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas are two of the most important infection related malignant neoplasms, which are showing typical pre-neoplastic diseases as a atrophic gastritis (AG) with Helicobactor pylori (H.pylori) for gastric cancers (GC) or a liver cirrhosis (LC) with hepatitis B or C for hepatocellular cancers (HCC). Both infection related diseases are attempting to eradicate the causal germs for cancer preventions and as circumstances of background for cancer developments, AG or LC is essential for pre-neoplastic regions of GC or HCC. In this study, mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines of IL-1 β, IL-8, COX-2 for GC in stomach mucosa and IL-8, COX-2, HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) for HCC in liver are evaluated to know the risk of cancer susceptibilities. The mRNA of IL-1 β, IL-8, COX-2 in stomach mucosa with/without H.pylori infections by biopsy specimens from 358 patients with a diagnosis of gastric diseases, from 177 patients with gastrectomy for stomach analysis, IL-8, COX-2, HGF from a part of HCC (69 patients), a part of LC (64 patients) from the peripheral liver of HCC and a part of normal peripheral liver from the metastatic liver tumors (14 patients) by surgical specimens for liver analysis, were measured by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels in a part of antrum for duodenal ulcer patients, who show minimal risk for GC, a part of anastomosis for gastrectomy patients, a part of corpus for severe AG with H.pylori or for patients with endoscopic mucosal resection of stomach mucosa for GC, compared by GAPDH as an internal controls, were following; IL-1β(0.98 vs 12.6 vs 1.48), IL-8(0.11 vs 0.51 vs 0.26), COX-2(2.4 vs 92.6* vs 139**), which indicate that COX-2 levels might be a surrogate biomarker for stomach cancer risk. In case of liver cancer, these levels in a part of normal liver, LC, HCC were following; IL-8(7.2 vs 28.6 vs 1.73), COX-2(2.4 vs 36.8 vs 9.8), HGF(25.6 vs 185 vs 18.3). Comparing to the degree of liver fibrosis in LC patients, these three markers were significantly higher in patients with low degrees than in those with high degrees of the fibrosis scores detected by surgery specimens, and in patients with secondary HCC developments, HGF levels showed relatively higher than those without reccurences in a part of LC, which suggested that HGF levels in peripheral liver as a background for HCC developments might predict the risk of HCC. These cytokines will be good biomarkers to reflect for the inflammations in gastritis and hepatitis, and also may predict not only for the risk assessments of primary and secondary gastric and liver carcinogenesis, but also for clinical usages for the better selection of individual treatments.
[Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Volume 47, 2006]