Background: Data on BC & carotenoid consumption in Hispanic women are limited. Studies have shown BC incidence is lower in women who consume a diet high in vegetables & fruits. Methods: The Women’s Healthy Eating & Living (WHEL) Study is an ongoing 7-sites randomized controlled trial examining the hypothesis that a plant-based dietary pattern affects the course of cancer & longevity. The study enrolled 3088 women within 4 years of primary diagnosis, stage I (≥1 cm), II, IIIA BC who completed standard therapy. Aim of study: To correlate baseline reported carotenoid intake with measured circulating serum carotenoid levels (lutein + zeaxanthin, βcryptoxanthin, lycopene, α & βcarotenes) of the 165 Hispanic women in the WHEL Study, & an age-matched sub-sample of Anglo BC survivors. Nutritional Data System version 4.0 was used to measure total daily consumption of fruit, vegetables from 4-day repeated 24-hour recalls & HPLC with ultraviolet detection (Nierenberg & Nann, 1992) was used to measure circulating serum carotenoid levels. Results: All participants reported eating 5 or more daily servings of fruits & vegetables, even after adjusting for age & time since diagnosis, with foreign-born Anglo participants consuming the highest number of daily servings (6.9±4.1), followed by foreign-born Hispanics (6.2±3.1), US-born Anglos (5.8±2.9), & US-born Hispanics, with the lowest intake (5.0±2.6). Statistical significant differences for βcarotene (p<.05), βcryptoxanthin (p<.01) & lutein + zeaxanthin (p<.05) intake were observed between foreign-born participants who had lived longer in US (5721.1±5595.9, 115.0±171.5 & 3129.2±2305.7, consecutively), & US-born participants (4811.9±6233.2, 73.6±116.4 & 2491.4±2572.5, consecutively), regardless of ethnicity. The same trend was observed among the same participants when assessing their circulating serum βcryptoxanthin (0.2334±0.1756 vs. 0.1582±0.1104, p<.01) & lutein + zeaxanthin levels (0.4227±0.2288 vs. 0.3569±0.1924, p<.05). In general, statistically significant correlations were observed among the reported carotenoid intake & the measured serum carotenoid circulating levels (p≤.01) for Anglo participants, whereas, in Hispanic participants only αcarotene & lutein + zexanthin were significantly correlated with their serum circulating levels (p≤.01). Conclusion: All study participants reported consuming NCIs recommended daily servings of fruits & vegetables, regardless of ethnicity. The highest reported intake of carotenoids was observed among Anglo & Hispanic foreign-born participants who had lived longer in the US, with Anglo participants reporting their carotenoid intake more accurately than Hispanic participants. The latter indicates the need to develop culturally-sensitive dietary instruments to better capture the carotenoid intake of Hispanic BC survivors.
[Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Volume 46, 2005]