Astrocytomas are brain tumors with variable responses to radiation and chemotherapy. Tumor grade and patient age are important prognostic factors but do not account for the variability in clinical outcome. We hypothesized that genetic subgroups play a role in the outcome of grade III astrocytomas and studied 80 grade III astrocytomas by comparative genomic hybridization. Some chromosomal aberrations (+7p/q, −9p, −10q, −13q, +19q) were related to aberrations that are frequent in grade IV astrocytoma, whereas others (+10p, −11q, +11p, −Xq) were more frequent in grade III astrocytoma. +7p, +19 and −4q were more frequent in tumors from older patients while −11p was more frequent in tumors from younger patients. Finally, gains of 7p and 7q were associated with shorter patient survival, independent of age. Our results indicate that genetic events underlie the well-known effects of age on survival in grade III astrocytoma and demonstrate the importance of molecular classification in astrocytic tumors.

Malignant astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors that arise in the adult central nervous system (1). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines three histological grades of astrocytic glioma with differing clinical behavior: low-grade astrocytoma (grade II), AA5 (grade III), and GM (grade IV; Ref. 2). AA is meant to designate a tumor more aggressive than a grade II astrocytoma but less malignant than GM. Thus, median survival is 3–5 years for AAs (3, 4, 5, 6), 12 months for GMs (3, 6) and 5–7 years for grade II astrocytomas (7, 8).

Clinical observations suggest that subtypes of AA exist. First, both therapeutic response and survival times vary widely in AA patients. Second, other factors, such as younger patient age and higher performance status, predict longer survival (4, 5, 6). It is unclear whether these observations are related to intrinsic properties of the tumor or to characteristics of the patient. We hypothesize that they are related to a tumor’s genetic makeup, and that genetic events associated with age, grade, or both, will help determine tumor behavior.

Tumor initiation and progression are believed to result from a series of genetic events that cause gains and/or losses of normal cellular function. Because genes encode proteins that regulate tumor behavior, particular genetic aberrations are likely to have prognostic significance. For example, relative gain of chromosome 3q correlates with transition from severe dysplasia to invasive carcinoma of the cervix (9), loss of 9p is associated with a shorter progression-free survival in renal cell carcinoma (10, 11), and overexpression or amplification of NMYC in neuroblastoma correlates with shorter survival (12, 13). However, relationships between cytogenetic aberrations and clinical parameters in primary central nervous system tumors remain unclear.

Previous studies indicate that genetic alterations occur at multiple sites in malignant astrocytomas (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). Each site is a candidate for a prognostic marker. However, evaluations at single loci may not consider other loci that could influence tumor behavior. CGH detects cytogenetic aberrations (relative loss or gain of chromosomes) across the entire tumor genome. Recent CGH studies have confirmed known genetic aberrations and identified previously unknown amplifications and deletions in astrocytomas (21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27). In this study, we used CGH to identify genetic subgroups among AAs, and to compare genetic differences among primary AAs, recurrent AAs, and GMs. We also analyzed the relationship of these subgroups to clinical characteristics to improve prognostic assessment and to identify clinically relevant steps in the initiation and progression of these tumors.

Tumor Samples and Histopathology.

Eighty frozen primary and recurrent AAs resected at UCSF between 1988 and 1995 were selected from the Brain Tumor Research Center Tissue Bank based on availability. Thirty-five were primary, and none were from the same patient. Except when explicitly noted, in this study, “primary” refers to a tumor at first diagnosis prior to therapy, and “recurrent” refers to a previously treated tumor. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after resection and stored at −80°C. We stained sections with H&E to confirm the presence of tumor and performed CGH on tissue with more than 50% tumor. The Division of Neuropathology at UCSF graded all of the tumors. Each was (at least focally) moderately to highly cellular and met at least two of these criteria: high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, coarse nuclear chromatin, presence of mitotic activity, and nuclear and/or cytoplasmic pleomorphism. If there was vascular endothelial proliferation and/or necrosis, the tumor was diagnosed GM. Recurrent tumors were classified as AA if the primary tumor had been diagnosed as AA. Features of GM in a recurrent AA did not exclude the tumor from analysis.

CGH.

CGH was performed as described previously (23). Metaphase spreads were prepared from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal human male peripheral blood lymphocytes. Test DNA was isolated from frozen tumor, and reference DNA was isolated from normal donor leukocytes. Test and reference DNA were labeled by nick translation, mixed with unlabeled human Cot-1 DNA (Life Technologies, Inc.) precipitated, redissolved, denatured, and hybridized to the normal metaphase chromosomes.

A Quantitative Image processing system acquired images from properly hybridized metaphases and generated ratio profiles of fluorescence intensity for each chromosome (28).

CNAs were defined by a ratio >1.2 or <0.8. Amplifications were scored only when visual inspection revealed a bright and discrete signal confined to a subchromosomal region.

Clinical Characteristics.

We obtained clinical data from patient records maintained by the Neuro-Oncology service at UCSF including: age and KPS at diagnosis, gender, duration of symptoms, date of diagnosis, extent of surgery, total radiation dose, adjuvant therapy, use of stereotactic radiosurgery or interstitial brachytherapy, time to first progression, salvage therapy, and date of death or last contact.

Statistical Analysis.

Patterns of CNAs were analyzed by comparing primary and recurrent AAs, and previously studied primary GMs (21). Clinical correlations were evaluated only in primary samples to eliminate the influence of treatment on a tumor’s chromosomal characteristics. We correlated CNAs that occurred in more than 10% of primary tumors with age, gender, KPS, tumor location, extent of resection, time to progression, and survival. Associations between categorical variables were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. Associations between age and number of CNAs were determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between CNA, TTP, and survival were analyzed using the stratified log-rank test in which the stratification was based on patient age < or ≥ 45 years. We chose this cutoff because of its statistical significance in our group of tumors when stratified at age 55, 50, 45, and 40 years. Age >45 years was a statistically significant cutoff in previous clinical retrospective studies of AAs (24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Because of the limited number of events, these tests were done using an exact permutation procedure. Median survival and time to progression were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All of the tests were carried out using Statistica (StatSoft, Tulsa, OK) and Stat Exact statistical software (Cytel, Cambridge, MA).

Clinical Characteristics of Primary AA Patients

There were 22 male and 13 female patients. Median age was 34 (range, 1–62), and median KPS was 90% (range, 60–100%). Twelve patients died during the study period, and the median follow-up was 81 months for patients still alive (n = 21). As expected, age <45 years old and KPS ≥ 90 were associated with longer survival (P < 0.05).

The tumors were located mainly in the frontal lobe (40%), and 22% involved more than one lobe. Fourteen were in the left hemisphere, and 17 were on the right. One patient had a brainstem tumor, and two patients had cervical spinal cord tumors. Two patients had biopsy only, 6 had a radiographic gross total resection, and 27 had subtotal resections. The one patient with a brainstem tumor was not included in the survival analysis because its location likely affected survival. Two patients were lost to follow-up at 14 days and 22 days after surgery. Of the remaining 32 patients, all but two underwent postoperative external beam radiation therapy to a dose of 5900–6000 Gy. A 9-month-old and a 12-year-old with gross total resections were not initially treated with radiation therapy. Ninety % of patients had adjuvant chemotherapy [60% procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine; 25% 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)]. Tumors recurred in 16 patients; 5 were reoperated for tumor debulking; 5 were reirradiated with gamma-knife or interstitial brachytherapy, and 12 received chemotherapy.

CNAs in AAs

There were fewer CNAs in primary (0–19 per tumor; mean, 4.6) than recurrent AAs (1–22 per tumor; mean, 7.2; P < 0.01). The most frequent gains in primary AAs were at 7q32-36 and 10p14-15, and 20% had amplifications (Fig. 1,a). The most frequent losses were at 9p21-22, 10q25-26, 11p15, and 4q32-35. Gains at 7p were strongly associated with losses at 10p (P ≤ 0.01) and/or 10q (P ≤ 0.01) in individual tumors. Among recurrent AAs, the most frequent gains were at 7q32-36, 7p, 19p, and 8q24, and amplifications were present in 44% (Fig. 1,b). The most frequent losses were at 9p21-22, 13q21-22, 10q25-26, 10p, 4q32-35, and 11p15. Amplifications, gain on 7p, loss on 9p21-22, and loss on 13q21-22 occurred more frequently in recurrent than in primary AAs (P < 0.05;Table 1).

Amplifications at 7p11.2-12 (EGFR) occurred in 2/35 primary and 4/45 recurrent AA, and at 4q12 (PDGFAR) in 5/45 recurrent AA. Amplifications at 1p31.3-32 and 2p24-25 (NMYC) occurred in two tumors, while each other amplification occurred in a single tumor.

+7p, +7q, +19p, −9p21-22, −10, and −13qs (Table 2; P < 0.01) and amplifications (P < 0.01) were less common in AAs than in GMs. Four CNAs (+10p14-15, +11q23-25, −11p15, and −Xq21-24) occurred more frequently in primary AAs than in primary GMs (Ref. 18; P < 0.01).

Relationships between CNAs and Clinical Characteristics

Age.

+7p, −4q, −10, and +19 occurred more frequently in patients ≥45 years old (P < 0.05), whereas −11p occurred only in patients <45 (P < 0.05;Fig. 2). There was a tendency for +8q, +10p, and −14q to occur more frequently in younger patients. Three patients had no evidence of CNAs by CGH; they were 9 months, 12 years, and 23 years old. −9p and +7q had no relationship to patient age. Tumors from older patients most often displayed either −4q or gains on chromosome 7; these two aberrations were in large part mutually exclusive and had different survivals (see below).

Survival/Time to Progression.

Because results were similar for time to progression and survival, we only report survival. Certain CNAs were associated with shorter survival, whereas others were associated with longer survival: (a) chromosome 7: Kaplan-Meier survival curves grouping patients based on chromosome 7 status show that patients with normal chromosome 7 (n = 22) survived longer than patients with +7q in the absence of +7p (n = 6), and patients with +7p, regardless of 7q (n = 5; P < 0.001;Fig. 3 b). The median survival times were 9.5, and 48 months for tumors with +7p and +7q, respectively, with only four deaths in 22 patients with normal chromosome 7 (median follow-up, 80 months); (b) chromosome 4q: these patients survived longer, independent of age (P < 0.05); (c) −4q versus +7p/+7q,−10: 1-year survival was 95% in older patients with −4q but was 25% in older patients with +7p, +7q and/or −10 (P < 0.05); (d) chromosome 8q: these patients tended toward shorter survival (P = 0.09) within the younger age group. Because +8q did not occur in the older age group, no comparison could be made; (e) chromosome 10: patients with +10p tumors had longer progression-free survival (P < 0.05), but overall survival did not reach statistical significance. Patients carrying tumors with loss on chromosome 10 had shorter survival, but, when stratified for gains on chromosome 7p, the survival difference was lost. Loss on chromosome 10 almost always occurred with gain on chromosome 7p; and (f) no CNAs: these three patients had no evidence of tumor progression after 79-, 103-, and 105-month follow-up, and survived longer than patients with identified CNAs (P < 0.05).

There was no statistically significant correlation between CNAs and KPS, sex, tumor location, extent of resection, use of radiation therapy, or adjuvant chemotherapy.

As expected, younger patients survived longer than older patients, but there were younger patients with shorter survival and older patients with longer survival (Fig. 3 a). Within each age group, gains on chromosome 7 were associated with survival. Two of two younger patients (ages 11 and 13 years) with +7p (regardless of +7q) died with survivals of only 10 and 34 months. In this younger group, +7q (with normal 7p) occurred in four patients, three of whom died at 42, 54, and 55 months. Only three of eighteen AA patients in the younger patient group with a normal chromosome 7 died (follow-up, 52–129 months; median for those alive, 83 months). There were fewer patients in the older age group, but the trend based on chromosome 7 status was similar. For patients ≥45 years old, two of three patients with +7p died with survivals of 6 and 17 months (one patient was lost to follow-up at 3 months). One of two patients with +7q died (12-month survival), and the other patient had a tumor with a very unusual profile with 18 CNAs, including aberrations not frequently found in our AA sample. The CGH profile suggests that this tumor is not an ordinary AA and may help explain the patient’s long survival (>109 months). Only one of four older patients with a normal chromosome 7 died (40-month survival).

This study suggests there are clinically significant genetic subtypes of AA associated with survival and patient age. CNAs associated with more aggressive tumors clustered in older patients, but when they occurred in younger patients, they were associated with poor outcome. Thus, our data suggest that genetic subtypes in AA underlie the clinical association between age and survival.

Many CNAs in primary AAs are similar to those in GMs [+7p, +7q, and −10 (Table 2); Ref. 23], and these were associated with poor survival. One explanation for these results is that these more aggressive AAs might be misdiagnosed GMs. However, the structure of the CNAs suggests that these tumors differ from GMs. AAs in our study group most often have subchromosomal gains on chromosome 7. This contrasts with the strong relationship between GM and whole chromosome 7 gain (23). These differences suggest that mechanisms of genetic damage leading to CNAs on chromosome 7 differ in AAs and GMs, although they have the common effect of increasing the copy number on parts of chromosome 7. They also indicate that CNAs involving chromosome 7 are key determinants of clinical outcome. Four CNAs (−11p15, −Xq21-24, +10p, and +11q2-25) were frequent among primary AAs but not among GMs (Tables 1 and 2). These CNAs were also frequent among recurrent AAs, confirming a close genetic relationship between recurrent and primary AAs. These CNAs could represent alternative pathways of progression that occur in grade III tumors; and it is possible that survival among these alternative grade III subtypes differs from that in subtypes that involve chromosomes 7 and/or 10. For example, −4q and +10p, which tend to be more frequent in AAs than in GMs, tend to occur in patients with better survival.

Other aberrations more frequently seen in recurrent tumors could be related to therapy or to tumor progression. For example, the observation that CNAs that are more frequent in recurrent than in primary AA (+7p, −9p21-2, 13q21-2, amplifications) are also more frequent in GMs than in primary AAs supports the idea that AAs progress by accumulating chromosome aberrations at locations common to GMs (Tables 1 and 2).

+7p, +19p, −4q, and −10 cluster among older patients while +8q and −11p cluster among younger patients (Fig. 2). This suggests that particular CNAs are associated with age, and that genetic subtypes of tumors in older patients differ from genetic subtypes in younger patients. Other common aberrations (+7q, −9p) are not associated with age.

Age is an important prognostic factor in gliomas; older age is associated with shorter survival (Fig. 3,a). However, survival is variable within specified age groups (4, 5, 6). Our data indicate that +7q and +7p are associated with shorter survival, independent of age. In our series, of the 18 patients under the age of 45 with normal chromosome 7, only 3 have died, with a median follow-up of 83 months. In contrast, three of the four patients with a gain of 7q (and normal 7p) have died (42-, 54-, and 55-month survival), and both patients with a gain of 7p have died (10- and 34-month survival). Although patients over the age of 45 were fewer in number, survival had similar trends. Of the four patients with normal chromosome 7, only one died (40-month survival), one of two patients with +7q died (12-month survival), and two of three patients died with +7p (6- and 17-month survival; the third patient was lost to follow-up at 3 months). In both age groups, +7p was associated with shorter survival and the presence of a normal chromosome 7 was associated with longer survival (P < 0.001). Thus, survival may be better understood if patients are categorized based on the genotype, particularly the status of chromosome 7 (Fig. 3 b). Tumors categorized into three groups, normal chromosome 7 copy number, +7q (in the absence of +7p), or +7p, demonstrate more uniform patient survival. These genetic subgroups better classify younger patients with shorter survival (+7p) and older patients with longer survival (normal 7). The revised Kaplan-Meier chart indicates two distinct groups of patients who have been diagnosed with AAs: those with longer survival (normal 7) and those with extremely poor survival (+7p).

Thus, in our study, gain of 7p represents a poor prognostic marker, regardless of age, and this CNA occurs more frequently in older patients. This helps to explain why age is related to survival and suggests that chromosome 7 is a better predictor of survival than age. The idea that tumor genotype influences overall survival is supported by the three patients with no CNAs. All three of these patients were in the younger age group and had progression-free survival of 79, 103, and 104 months.

One possible confounding factor in this study regards chromosome aberrations associated with another glial tumor, oligodendroglioma. These tumors are often low grade and may be difficult to differentiate from astrocytomas. At least two groups have reported that losses on chromosomes 1 and 19 are associated with good outcome in oligodendroglial tumors (32, 33), and it is believed that losses on chromosomes 1 and 19, and extra copies of chromosome 7 material, occur in mutually exclusive groups of tumors (34, 35). This suggests that tumors from patients with good outcome can be characterized by losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q. However, among the tumors with a normal chromosome 7 copy number in our study, only one had loss of these two chromosomes. This suggests that the astrocytoma cases that we studied include few, if any, oligodendrogliomas.

The relatively small number of primary AAs that we analyzed limits this pilot study. Nevertheless, the survival difference between the genetic subgroups was dramatic and the hypothesis that we have generated dovetails with what we know about CNAs in grade IV tumors. Additional studies in an additional group of grade III astrocytomas and investigation of the specific regions of gain, or loss, common in all tumors will help clarify these results.

These findings have profound implications for understanding and predicting the behavior of AAs in a given patient. Cytogenetic profiles can supplement current histological criteria to improve the accuracy of survival predictions and eventually to provide a more objective method than histology for classifying malignant gliomas. Our data demonstrate the importance of assessing the cytogenetics of a tumor (particularly chromosome 7) as an independent prognostic marker for evaluating survival in clinical studies. With genetic classification, the pathogenesis and progression of malignant gliomas will become clearer and their behavior better defined. On the basis of the associations between clinical characteristics and gains of 7p, 7q, 8q, 10p, and 11p, and loss of chromosomes 10 and 4q, further investigation is needed to identify genes in these chromosomal regions implicated in glioma initiation, progression, and behavior.

Fig. 1.

Summary of DNA copy number changes in AAs. a, summary of CNAs in primary AAs (n = 35).Lines on the left of the ideogram, losses; lines on the right, gains. Each line, one CNA within one tumor. Thick lines on the right, regions with an amplification. b, summary of DNA copy number changes in recurrent AA (n = 45).

Fig. 1.

Summary of DNA copy number changes in AAs. a, summary of CNAs in primary AAs (n = 35).Lines on the left of the ideogram, losses; lines on the right, gains. Each line, one CNA within one tumor. Thick lines on the right, regions with an amplification. b, summary of DNA copy number changes in recurrent AA (n = 45).

Close modal
Fig. 2.

Age distribution of genetic aberrations in AAs. Each symbol, the patient’s age for a single tumor with an aberration at the regions identified on the abscissa. The horizontal lines, the upper, middle, and lower quartiles for age in the study group. If an aberration is independent of age, 50% of the points should fall between the upper and lower quartiles. +7p, −10, +19p and −4q occurred more frequently in patients ≥45 years old (P ≤ 0.05). −11p occurred exclusively in patients <45 years old (P ≤ 0.05). +7q (in the absence of +7p) occurred in both age groups.

Fig. 2.

Age distribution of genetic aberrations in AAs. Each symbol, the patient’s age for a single tumor with an aberration at the regions identified on the abscissa. The horizontal lines, the upper, middle, and lower quartiles for age in the study group. If an aberration is independent of age, 50% of the points should fall between the upper and lower quartiles. +7p, −10, +19p and −4q occurred more frequently in patients ≥45 years old (P ≤ 0.05). −11p occurred exclusively in patients <45 years old (P ≤ 0.05). +7q (in the absence of +7p) occurred in both age groups.

Close modal
Fig. 3.

Overall survival for AAs by age and CNA. a, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for primary AA patients who are <45 years old (○) or ≥45 years old (×). b, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for patients with normal chromosome 7 (○), gain of 7q (in the absence of +7p; ▵), or gain of 7p (□) as detected by CGH. Survival was associated with chromosome 7 status (P < 0.001). The patient with +7q with survival of 109 months had a very unusual CGH profile with 18 CNAs, including aberrations infrequent among other AAs.

Fig. 3.

Overall survival for AAs by age and CNA. a, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for primary AA patients who are <45 years old (○) or ≥45 years old (×). b, Kaplan-Meier survival curves for patients with normal chromosome 7 (○), gain of 7q (in the absence of +7p; ▵), or gain of 7p (□) as detected by CGH. Survival was associated with chromosome 7 status (P < 0.001). The patient with +7q with survival of 109 months had a very unusual CGH profile with 18 CNAs, including aberrations infrequent among other AAs.

Close modal

The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked advertisement in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

1

Supported by Research Grant CA64877, CA64898, and CA-13525 from NIH and the National Brain Tumor Foundation.

5

The abbreviations used are: AA, anaplastic astrocytoma; GM, glioblastoma multiforme; CGH, comparative genomic hybridization; UCSF, University of California-San Francisco; CNA, copy number aberration; KPS, Karnofsky performance status.

Table 1

Frequency of common aberrations in primary and recurrent AAs detected by CGH

Bold regions occur more frequently in recurrent tumors (P < 0.05). Italicized regions occur frequently in primary and recurrent AAs and are more frequent in primary AAs than in primary GMs (see Table 2).

Chromosomal regions% primary AAs (n) n = 35% recurrent AAs (n) n = 45
+1q 3 (1) 11 (5) 
+2p24-25 11 (4) 10 (4) 
−4q32-35 20 (7) 27 (12) 
−6q22-27 14 (5) 13 (6) 
+7p 17 (6) 38 (17) 
+7q32-36 26 (9) 33 (15) 
+8q24 14 (5) 22 (10) 
−9p21-22 34 (12) 51 (23) 
−10p 14 (5) 31 (14) 
−10q25-q26 29 (10) 40 (18) 
+10p 20 (7) 13 (6) 
−11p15 23 (8) 22 (10) 
+11q23-25 14 (5) 13 (6) 
−12q14-23 17 (6) 11 (5) 
+12p13 14 (5) 7 (3) 
−13q21-q22 17 (6) 36 (16) 
−14q22-q24 14 (5) 11 (5) 
+19p 11 (4) 22 (10) 
+20q 11 (4) 11 (5) 
−Xq21-q24 14 (5) 11 (5) 
Amplifications 20 (7) 44 (20) 
Chromosomal regions% primary AAs (n) n = 35% recurrent AAs (n) n = 45
+1q 3 (1) 11 (5) 
+2p24-25 11 (4) 10 (4) 
−4q32-35 20 (7) 27 (12) 
−6q22-27 14 (5) 13 (6) 
+7p 17 (6) 38 (17) 
+7q32-36 26 (9) 33 (15) 
+8q24 14 (5) 22 (10) 
−9p21-22 34 (12) 51 (23) 
−10p 14 (5) 31 (14) 
−10q25-q26 29 (10) 40 (18) 
+10p 20 (7) 13 (6) 
−11p15 23 (8) 22 (10) 
+11q23-25 14 (5) 13 (6) 
−12q14-23 17 (6) 11 (5) 
+12p13 14 (5) 7 (3) 
−13q21-q22 17 (6) 36 (16) 
−14q22-q24 14 (5) 11 (5) 
+19p 11 (4) 22 (10) 
+20q 11 (4) 11 (5) 
−Xq21-q24 14 (5) 11 (5) 
Amplifications 20 (7) 44 (20) 
Table 2

Frequency of chromosomal aberrations in primary malignant gliomas

Chromosomal aberrationsAA, % (n = 35)GM, % (n = 72)
Occurring more frequently in AAs (P < 0.01)   
 +10p 20 
 −11p15 23 
 +11q23-25 14 
 −Xq21-24 14 
Occurring less frequently in AAs (P < 0.01)   
 +7p 17 79 
 +7q 26 79 
 −9p21-22 34 67 
 −10q 26 82 
 −10 17 67 
 −13q 17 40 
 +19p 11 53 
Amplifications 20 71 
Common, occurring equally in AAs and GMs   
 −4q32-35 20 11 
 −6q 14 26 
 +8q24 14 
 +12p 14 11 
 −14q22-24 14 26 
 +20q 11 22 
Chromosomal aberrationsAA, % (n = 35)GM, % (n = 72)
Occurring more frequently in AAs (P < 0.01)   
 +10p 20 
 −11p15 23 
 +11q23-25 14 
 −Xq21-24 14 
Occurring less frequently in AAs (P < 0.01)   
 +7p 17 79 
 +7q 26 79 
 −9p21-22 34 67 
 −10q 26 82 
 −10 17 67 
 −13q 17 40 
 +19p 11 53 
Amplifications 20 71 
Common, occurring equally in AAs and GMs   
 −4q32-35 20 11 
 −6q 14 26 
 +8q24 14 
 +12p 14 11 
 −14q22-24 14 26 
 +20q 11 22 
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