Bcl-2 suppresses drug-induced apoptosis in vivo, although in many cases, this results only in a delayed onset of cell death. In vivo survival signals from the extracellular environment may also contribute to drug resistance and may act with Bcl-2 to promote long-term cell survival. Ligation of CD40 on B-lymphocytes in germinal centers (GCs) can suppress apoptosis induced by calcium ionophore or anti-IgM in vitro. We asked whether a combination of Bcl-2 expression and the provision of a culture environment that mimicked that of the GC [CD40 ligation and interleukin 4 (IL-4)] could increase the ability of B lymphoma cells to resist drug-induced apoptosis. A Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell line transfected with either human bcl-2 (BL-bcl-2) or control plasmid (BL-Sv2) was used to examine the effects of Bcl-2 overexpression on the cellular response and long-term survival after treatment with the DNA-alkylating drug chlorambucil (CMB) in the presence or absence of CD40 ligation and IL-4. Administration of 20 µm CMB completely prevented cell proliferation. This was associated with an increase in p53 protein levels within 24 h, without an elevation in p21, Bax, or Mdm2 proteins. Analyses of cell cycle distribution and of cyclin B expression demonstrated that both cell lines arrested at G2/M, where they died. Fifty % of BL-Sv2 cells died within 2 days, whereas 50% cell death was not observed in the BL-bcl-2 cultures until 6 days had passed. Cross-linking of CD40 with a monoclonal anti-body elevated Bcl-xl protein levels by 3 h and also provided a delay in CMB-induced death. Ninety-six h after the addition of 20 µm CMB, 78% of the BL-Sv2 cells were apoptotic, whereas ligation of CD40 on BL-Sv2 cells reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells to 38%. Overexpression of Bcl-2 (in BL-bcl-2 cells) reduced apoptosis to 41%. However, when the BL-bcl-2 cells were treated with CMB together with ligation of CD40, apoptosis was reduced further to only 17% at 96 h. The Bcl-2-mediated delay in the execution of CMB-induced apoptosis did not translate significantly to increased clonogenicity. In contrast, the provision of BL-Sv2 cells with an ability to interact with the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CD40 ligation, and IL-4 significantly increased clonogenic survival, and this was improved in BL-bcl-2 cells exposed to these GC-derived signals. These data demonstrate that the kinetics of drug-induced apoptosis can be modulated by Bcl-2 as well as by IL-4, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and CD40 ligation, the latter possibly involving the function of Bcl-xl. That these factors appear to act together to enhance proliferative potential after DNA damage has important implications regarding the development of drug resistance in B-cell lymphomas and future strategies for improved chemotherapy.
This work was supported by The Cancer Research Campaign, United Kingdom, Grant SP2115 (to J. A. H.). S. T. T. is the recipient of a Cancer Research Campaign Studentship. C. D. is a Fellow of the Lister Institute of Preventative Medicine.