Most patients' prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation but relapse after periods of several months to years. Only two prostate cancer xenografts. LNCaP and PC-346, have been reported to be responsive to androgen deprivation and to relapse subsequently. Both of these tumors shrink slightly, if at all, and relapse less than 5 weeks after androgen withdrawal. After androgen withdrawal, the human primary prostate cancer xenograft CWR22 regresses markedly, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) falls up to 3000-fold in the blood of mice. PSA usually returns to normal. In some animals, the tumor relapses and is then designated CWR22R. In these animals, PSA starts to rise approximately 2–7 months, and tumor begins to grow 3–10 months after castration. Animals with CWR22 need to be euthanized because of large tumors 6–12 weeks after the transplantation of CWR22. Androgen withdrawal prolongs life approximately 3–4-fold.
This work was supported by NIH Grants DK45770, DK51347, CA57179, CA54031, CA43703, CA57183, and CA55792.