We evaluated the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and generation of catabolites of an 18F- and 125I-labeled anti-Tac disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (dsFv) in tumor-bearing nude mice. This dsFv is genetically engineered from a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the alpha subunit of the interleukin 2 (IL-2α) receptor. Labeling was performed with 18F using N-succinimidyl 4-([18F]fluoromethyl)benzoate or with 125I using the Iodo-Gen method. The immunoreactivities of the radiolabeled anti-Tac dsFv were >82%. The biodistribution was evaluated (at 15, 45, and 90 min and 6 h) in athymic nude mice (∼five/group) bearing s.c. tumor xenografts. Cell line A431 served as the IL-2 receptor-negative control tumor, whereas the ATAC4 cell line served as our IL-2 receptor-positive tumor. Animals received injections of 18F-labeled anti-Tac dsFv (0.7–1.4 megabecquerels/1.5–3 µg) and 125I-labeled anti-Tac dsFv (0.1–0.4 megabecquerels/0.9–1 µg). Blood clearance for both preparations was rapid, with <10% retained in the blood by 15 min. Maximum accumulation in ATAC4 tumors occurred between 45 and 90 min and peaked at a mean of 4.2% injected dose/g (18F) and 5.6% of injected dose/g (125I). At 6 h, the ATAC4 tumors contained 11 times more 18F and 3 times more 125I than did the A431 tumors. The ATAC4 tumor:blood ratios for the 18F and 125I were >12:1 and >1.4:1 at 6 h, respectively, whereas the ratios for the antigen-negative A431 tumor were less than 1. The kidneys were the major route of elimination. Catabolites appeared quickly and were identified as [125I]iodide and predominantly N-ε-[18F]4-fluoromethylbenzoyl(α-N-acetyl) lysine. This is the first study to evaluate the biodistribution of an 18F-labeled Fv fragment in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, the dsFv was taken up rapidly by the kidneys, producing lysine-containing catabolites for 18F-labeled dsFv and [125I]iodide for 125I-labeled dsFv.