We describe a case-control study to identify associations between polymorphism at the cytochrome P-450 (CYP2D6) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTT1 and GSTM1) loci and susceptibility to astrocytoma and meningioma. Accordingly, genotype frequencies in 112 astrocytoma and 50 meningioma patients were compared with frequencies in 577 controls. GSTM1 genotype frequencies in these groups were not different. Logistic regression analysis showed GSTT1 null and CYP2D6 poor metabolizer were risk factors in astrocytoma (odds ratio = 2.67 P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 4.17 P = 0.0043, respectively) and meningioma (odds ratio = 4.52, P = 0.0001 and odds ratio = 4.90, P = 0.0132, respectively) when corrected for the other variables. No interactive effects between genotypes were identified. The data suggest polymorphism at loci encoding carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes influences susceptibility to astrocytoma and meningioma, possibly by determining effectiveness in the detoxification of environmental carcinogens.