The effect of using a “residualizing” iodine radiolabel, dilactitol-iodotyramine, for radioimmunolocalization of antibodies to tumors was investigated. This tracer is designed to be lysosomally trapped after catabolism of the labeled antibody. mAbs RS7 and RS11 were used for in vivo and in vitro studies on the uptake and retention of radioisotope into tumor cells. Both are murine IgG1 mAbs with pancarcinoma reactivity, which react with integral membrane glycoproteins. mAb RS7 has been shown to be relatively rapidly catabolized by the antigen-bearing cell line Calu-3, whereas RS11 is catabolized more slowly in the same cells. An 111In- or 88Y-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid conjugate was also tested because these radiometals are known to be lysosomally trapped, and iodination via chloramine T was used to provide a baseline. In vitro, a substantial increase in retention of the label by cells was observed when the dilactitol-tyramine DLT- or 111In-labeled mAbs were used, and the improvement gained by the use of these residualizing labels was greater with the use of the rapidly catabolized mAb (RS7) than it was with the more slowly catabolized mAb (RS11). In biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing Calu-3 tumor xenografts, a dramatic improvement in the tumor accretion of the radiolabel was seen with the use of the 131I-labeled DLT- or 88Y-labeled mAbs. For example, at day 7 the percentage of injected dose/g in the tumor was 5.54 ± 1.47% (SD), 38.06 ± 8.04%, and 43.18 ± 19.50% for the conventionally iodinated, DLT- and 88Y-labeled RS7, respectively. Dosimetry calculations performed on the biodistribution data predict increases of approximately 8- and 4-fold in the absorbed dose to tumor with the use of 131I-labeled DLT- and 90Y-labeled mAbs, respectively, compared to the conventional 131I. In contrast to in vitro findings, these results were similar for both RS7 and RS11, suggesting that the use of DLT may be advantageous for most of the mAbs binding to the cell surface, including antibodies that are catabolized relatively slowly. The advantage of 131I-labeled DLT over 90Y is due to the longer physical half-life of the 131I.
Supported in part by USPHS Grant CA-60039 (R. S.) and DK-25373 (S. R. T.) from the NIH.