We have recently cloned a 2.65-kilobase complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM) recognized by the 7E11-C5.3 anti-prostate monoclonal antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis of the LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines for PSM expression using the 7E11-C5.3 antibody reveals intense staining in the LNCaP cells with no detectable expression in both the DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Coupled in vitro transcription/translation of the 2.65-kilobase full-length PSM cDNA yields an Mr 84,000 protein corresponding to the predicted polypeptide molecular weight of PSM. Posttranslational modification of this protein with pancreatic canine microsomes yields the expected Mr 100,000 PSM antigen. Following transfection of PC-3 cells with the full-length PSM cDNA in a eukaryotic expression vector, we detect expression of the PSM glycoprotein by Western analysis using the 7E11-C5.3 monoclonal antibody. Ribonuclease protection analysis demonstrates that the expression of PSM mRNA is almost entirely prostate specific in human tissues. PSM expression appears to be highest in hormone-deprived states and is hormonally modulated by steroids, with 5-α-dihydrotestosterone down-regulating PSM expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP by 8–10-fold, testosterone down-regulating PSM by 3–4-fold, and corticosteroids showing no significant effect. Normal and malignant prostatic tissues consistently show high PSM expression, whereas we have noted heterogeneous, and at times absent, expression of PSM in benign prostatic hyperplasia. LNCaP tumors implanted and grown both orthotopically and s.c. in nude mice abundantly express PSM, providing an excellent in vivo model system to study the regulation and modulation of PSM expression.
This work was supported in part by NIH Grants DK/CA47650 and CA58192. R. S. I. received partial support from NIH Training Grant CA-09501-07.