Gallium, a metal with clinical antineoplastic activity, is known to inhibit cellular iron uptake and iron-dependent DNA synthesis. Little information exists regarding the efficacy of gallium in combination with other agents. Since α-interferon (IFN-α) can modulate the action of certain chemotherapeutic drugs, we examined its influence on the growth inhibitory effects of gallium in CCRF-CEM cells. IFN-α and gallium as single agents had only minimal to moderate antiproliferative effects. In combination, however, both drugs synergistically inhibited cell growth, causing cell death accompanied by DNA fragmentation. At lower concentrations (120 µm), gallum inhibited cellular iron uptake but did not increase transferrin receptor expression, nor did it block cellular proliferation. The addition of IFN-α to this concentration of gallium significantly increased the gallium-induced block of iron uptake, resulting in an increase in transferrin receptors and an inhibiton of cell growth. In contrast, IFN-α did not enhance the effects of the iron chelator deferoxamine on iron uptake or cell growth. Our studies suggest that gallium and IFN-α synergistically inhibit DNA synthesis through a mechanism that includes inhibition of cellular iron uptake and depletion of intracellular iron below the critical level needed to maintain DNA synthesis.


This work was supported by USPHS Grant RO1 CA41740 and by the Ralph and Marion Falk Foundation Trust Grant awarded to the Cancer Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin.

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