We used a modified colony survival assay to measure the sensitivity to ionizing radiation of more than 50 lymphoblastoid cell lines from normal individuals and from patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome variants, and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. All of these disorders are associated with an increased frequency of cancer. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with ataxiatelangiectasia complementation groups A, C, D, and E; ATFresno; Nijmegen breakage syndrome variants V1 and V2; and X-linked agammaglobulinemia showed marked radiosensitivity, whereas ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes were similar to controls. Friedreich's ataxia is not associated with increased cancer risk; lymphoblastoid cell lines from two such patients showed normal radiosensitivity. Taken together, these results suggest that some forms of X-ray sensitivity and cancer susceptibility share a common mechanism, such as an enzyme that is necessary both for the repair of radiation damage to DNA and for gene rearrangements during V(D)J recombination.
This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant 87ER60548, the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Medical Research Foundation, the A-T Medical Research Trust, US PHS Core Grant CA16042 to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, and the Italian C.N.R. Projetto Finaliizatto A.C.R.O. 92-02160-39.