The present study identifies the specific human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes involved in hydroxylation leading to activation of the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide and its isomeric analogue, ifosphamide. Substantial interindividual variation (4-9-fold) was observed in the hydroxylation of these oxazaphosphorines by a panel of 12 human liver microsomes, and a significant correlation was obtained between these 2 activities (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). Enzyme kinetic analyses revealed that human liver microsomal cyclophosphamide 4-hydroxylation and ifosphamide 4-hydroxylation are best described by a 2-component MichaelisMenten model composed of both low Km and high Km P-450 4-hydroxylases. To ascertain whether one or more human P-450 enzymes are catalytically competent in activating these oxazaphosphorines, microsomal fractions prepared from a panel of human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines stably transformed with individual P-450 complementary DNAs were assayed in vitro for oxazaphosphorine activation. Expressed CYP2A6, -2B6, -2C8, -2C9, and -3A4 were catalytically competent in hydroxylating cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Whereas CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 have the characteristics of low Km oxazaphosphorine 4-hydroxylases, CYP2A6, -2B6, and -3A4 are high Km forms. In contrast, CYP1A1, -1A2, -2D6, and -2E1 did not produce detectable activities. Furthermore, growth of cultured CYP2A6- and CYP2B6-expressing B-lymphoblastoid cells, but not of CYP-negative control cells, was inhibited by cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide as a consequence of prodrug activation to cytotoxic metabolites. Experiments with P-450 form-selective chemical inhibitors and inhibitory anti-P-450 antibodies were then performed to determine the contributions of individual P-450s to the activation of these drugs in human liver microsomes. Orphenadrine (a CYP2B6 inhibitor) and anti-CYP2B IgG inhibited microsomal cyclophosphamide hydroxylation to a greater extent than ifosphamide hydroxylation, consistent with the 8-fold higher activity of complementary DNA-expressed CYP2B6 with cyclophosphamide. In contrast, troleandomycin, a selective inhibitor of CYP3A3 and -3A4, and anti-CYP3A IgG substantially inhibited microsomal ifosphamide hydroxylation but had little or no effect on microsomal cyclophosphamide hydroxylation. By contrast, the CYP2D6-selective inhibitor quinidine did not affect either microsomal activity, while anti-CYP2A antibodies had only a modest inhibitory effect. Overall, the present study establishes that liver microsomal CYP2B and CYP3A preferentially catalyze cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide 4-hydroxylation, respectively, suggesting that liver P-450-inducing agents targeted at these enzymes might be used in cancer patients to enhance drug activation and therapeutic efficacy.
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Supported in part by Grant CA-49248 from the NIH (D. J. W.). T. K. H. C. was supported by a Canadian Liver Foundation Research Fellowship and G. F. W. by a Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Postdoctoral Fellowship.