We report the cytogenetic analysis of 124 adult male germ cell tumors ascertained consecutively at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1988 and 1990. Biopsies from testicular and extragonadal primary and metastatic lesions studied included all histological subtypes of germ cell tumors and cases of malignant transformation. Nonrandom numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities including i(12p), the previously described characteristic marker of these tumors, were determined, and their frequency was compared between histological subtypes, between gonadal and extragonadal lesions, and between primary and transformed lesions. The frequency and copy number of i(12p) were found to be higher in nonseminomas compared with seminomas. Nonrandom sites of chromosome rearrangements associated with specific histologies comprised 1p32–36 and 7q11.2 in teratomas and 1p22 in yolk sac tumors. Some tumors that underwent malignant differentiation exhibited chromosome changes previously described to be nonrandomly associated with de novo tumors with the same histological characteristics. Cytological evidence of gene amplification in the form of homogeneously staining regions and/or double minutes was detected in 24% of extragonadal lesions, mainly metastatic tumors, suggesting amplification of a gene(s) associated with metastatic progression of these tumors. While a number of previous small cytogenetic series or individual case reports of germ cell tumors identified several of the features of these tumors reported here, this series comprises analysis of the largest group of tumors ascertained consecutively at a single institution, defines the incidence of nonrandom abnormalities in tumor subsets, and addresses their biological significance.
Supported in part by NIH Research Grant CA-05826.