The ability of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and its efficacy against a LAK-resistant tumor were investigated. Cells of the MH134 murine hepatoma line are scarcely lysed by LAK cells generated in vitro by incubation of C3H/HeN mouse spleen cells with human recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2). However, the splenic LAK cells potently lysed the LAK-resistant tumor cells in the presence of 11G2, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) of the IgG1 isotype reactive with a part of MM antigen. Peritoneal cells induced by daily i.p. injections of rIL 2 not only exhibited LAK activity but also mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against MH134 tumor cells in the presence of 11G2. The peritoneal cells exhibiting these cytotoxic activities were found to be nonadherent and nonphagocytic mononuclear cells possessing a similar cell surface phenotype as that of splenic LAK cells, that is Thy-1.2+∼-, Lyt-1.1-, Lyt-2.1-, and asialo GM1+. Treatment of spleen cells with antibodies and complement before culture with rIL 2 revealed that the phenotype of splenic LAK precursors is Thy-1.2- and asialo GM1+. The in vivo induction of peritoneal LAK cells in response to i.p. injections of rIL 2 was markedly depressed in C57BL/6 beige mice but was normally accomplished in BALB/c nude mice. Combined therapy of C3H/HeN mice bearing MH134 ascitic tumor with i.p. injection of rIL 2 and 11G2 brought about potent suppression of the tumor growth, resulting in the significant increase in the number of tumor-free mice, whereas neither rIL 2 nor the MAb could exhibit such a potent antitumor effect when used alone. Injection (i.v.) of anti-asialo GM1 antibody not only blocked the induction of peritoneal LAK cells by rIL 2 but also abrogated the development of the antitumor effect of the combined therapy. These results strongly suggest that combination of antitumor MAbs capable of inducing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with rIL 2 therapy could result in the generation of potent antitumor effects against LAK-resistant tumors and that asialo GM1-positive non-T-cell populations including cells of the natural killer cell lineage are essential, at least in part, for development of the antitumor effects of the combined therapy with rIL 2 and MAbs.
Supported by a Grant-in-aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Welfare.