Acodazole (NSC 305884) was examined in a Phase I trial evaluating a 1-h infusion repeated every 21 days in 37 patients with advanced carcinomas. Cardiac toxicity was dose-limiting at 1370 mg/m2, manifested as multiple premature ventricular contractions, QTc interval prolongation, and decreasing heart rate. Other toxicities included mild to moderate nausea and vomiting and local reaction near the i.v. injection site requiring the use of central venous catheters. Antineoplastic activity was not observed. Acodazole levels assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography disclosed a peak plasma level of 19 ± 4 (SEM) µg/ml for 1370 mg/m2. Acodazole plasma levels decreased in a triphasic manner over a 100-fold range. The volume of distribution at steady state was 238 ± 18 liter/m2 suggesting extensive tissue binding. The total body clearance was 13.6 ± 0.9 liter/h/m2; the percentage of urinary excretion was 29 ± 2% for 48 h. To evaluate cardiac toxicity, acodazole was administered to five dogs at 2262 mg/m2 (1-h infusion) which provided plasma concentrations similar to those achieved at 1370 mg/m2 in humans. Consistent findings in dogs were drug-related prolongation of QTc intervals, and reduction in heart rate, left ventricular dP/dt, and mean blood pressures. Clinical development of acodazole requires studies to further elucidate and alleviate this cardiac toxicity.
This study was supported in part by Phase I Contract N01-CM-27551 of the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, and by the Ben Kasle Trust Fund for Cancer Research, Detroit, MI.