We performed a phase I study of menogaril to determine if dosage reduction was required in patients with hepatic dysfunction and if the relationship between pharmacokinetics and leukopenia, previously defined in patients with normal hepatic and renal function, was altered. Eighteen patients received 27 courses of menogaril, of which 26 were evaluable for toxicity. Patient characteristics were median age, 63 years (range, 28–80 years), 14 male/4 female, and median Karnofsky performance status 80% (range, 60–100%). Prior therapy included none, five; chemotherapy only, seven; radiotherapy only, two; and chemotherapy and radiotherapy, four. Menogaril was administered as a 2-h i.v. infusion every 28 days at 62.5 (one patient), 125 (eight patients), 187.5 (seven patients), and 250 mg/m2 (six patients), based on pretreatment serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Patients also had indocyanine green and antipyrine clearances measured before menogaril treatment. Menogaril and metabolites were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. Dose-limiting toxicity was leukopenia. WBC nadirs occurred between days 8 and 20 (median, 15). Three patients developed platelet nadirs below 100,000/µl. Other toxicities included grade I nausea and vomiting in three patients and phlebitis at the site of drug infusion in six patients. Correlations were defined between pretreatment indocyanine green clearance and serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. There were no correlations between pretreatment serum concentrations of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, indocyanine green clearance or antipyrine and menogaril clearances. Menogaril pharmacokinetics in patients with elevated liver function tests was indistinguishable from that described in patients with normal liver function tests. There were excellent correlations between plasma area under the curve of menogaril and the percentage decreases in WBC and neutrophils. These were well described by two models previously used to study the same relationships in patients with normal hepatic and renal function. When compared to previous studies, patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction had a greater percentage decrease in WBC for any given area under the curve than did patients with normal hepatic and renal function. On the other hand, there was no difference in the relationship between percentage decrease in neutrophils and menogaril area under the curve in these two groups of patients. It is likely that menogaril dosage reduction will not be required in patients with elevated serum concentrations of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, or alkaline phosphatase. However, confirmation of this hypothesis awaits completion of a subsequent clinical trial.

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Supported by contract NO1-CM-47734 awarded by the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services and by Grant 85/033 from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

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